Pancasila Democracy versus Direct Democracy: A Review of the Concept of Civil Society

  • Yakob Noho Nani


The emergence of the phenomenon of identity politics, money politics, primordialism and political pragmatism, which emerged as a consequence of the direct democratic system turned out to be different from its basic goal as an effort to increase the role and participation of the public in the era of political reform. The purpose of this study is to identify the basic norms of Pancasila democracy as the nation's personality to ensure the consistency of democratic values on a fundamental basis. To fulfill this, a comparison has been made between the norms of Pancasila democracy and the norms of direct democracy rooted in liberal democracy through a literature study with a qualitative approach.Empirical facts show that; 1) the development of democracy demands a change in the underlying values; 2) there are linguistic causative factors and moderating factors that determine the quality of democracy; 3) countries have different philosophical norms from one another and lack an in-depth philosophical understanding; 4) there is an inconsistency of values caused by a lack of a basic understanding of the substance of democracy in a comprehensive manner, where democracy is merely an attempt to respond solely. This problem must be corrected so that it does not cause widespread and hereditary impacts in the administration of the state and government.

How to Cite
Nani, Y. N. (2022). Pancasila Democracy versus Direct Democracy: A Review of the Concept of Civil Society. European Journal of Science, Innovation and Technology, 2(2), 1-15. Retrieved from
Research Articles