A Comparison of the Existing Ellipsoidal to Orthometric Height Transformation Models

  • Bledar SINA
  • Gezim HASKO
Keywords: GNSS, ellipsoidal and orthometric height, ITRF/ETRF/ALB reference, transformation


Geodetic height transformations play a crucial role in bridging the gap between ellipsoidal and orthometric height systems, facilitating accurate elevation data integration across diverse applications. This study presents a comprehensive comparison of existing ellipsoidal to orthometric height transformation models, aiming to assess their performance and identify potential areas for improvement. This paper focuses on evaluating the accuracy, reliability, and computational efficiency of prominent transformation models, including but not limited to Molodensky, Helmert, and rigorous mathematical approaches. Various datasets, encompassing different geographic regions and terrain characteristics, are employed to ensure a comprehensive assessment of model performance under diverse conditions. Key metrics such as root mean square error (RMSE), bias, and standard deviation are utilized to quantify the differences between transformed orthometric heights and observed values. Additionally, computational aspects such as algorithm complexity and processing time are considered to evaluate the practicality of each model for large-scale applications. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of the strengths and limitations of existing ellipsoidal to orthometric height transformation models, providing valuable insights for geodetic practitioners, surveyors, and researchers. The identified areas for improvement may guide future developments in height transformation methodologies, advancing the accuracy and reliability of elevation data integration in geospatial sciences. Ultimately, this research aims to enhance the precision of height information crucial for applications ranging from engineering and construction to environmental monitoring and geospatial analysis.


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How to Cite
SINA, B., & HASKO, G. (2024). A Comparison of the Existing Ellipsoidal to Orthometric Height Transformation Models. European Journal of Science, Innovation and Technology, 4(1), 281-290. Retrieved from https://ejsit-journal.com/index.php/ejsit/article/view/381