Ascertaining the Presence of Genetic Modification in Seeds, Processed Food, and Feed Products in Namibia

  • Paulus Mungeyi
  • Percy Chimwamurombe
  • Grace Nandesora Kangueehi
Keywords: DNA1, 35S2, NOS3, CAMV4, GMOs5, GM Products6


The study aimed to assess whether the seeds in Namibia were derived from genetic modifications and whether grains, processed foods, and feed products contain genetically modified (GM) content. A multistage probability random sampling strategy was used to collect samples from eight regions: Khomas, Zambezi, Ohangwena, Omusati, Otjozondjupa, Kavango East, Kavango West, and Oshikoto. A total of 20 maize food samples were randomly sampled from Khomas; 2021 (5), Otjozondjupa; 2020 (2), Omusati; 2021 (1), Oshikoto; 2015 (3), Ohangwena; 2015 (2), Zambezi; 2020 (2), Kavango East; 2020 (1), and 2015 (4). A total of five (5) wheat food samples were obtained from Kavango East in 2015, and one (1) mixture of canola and soy was sampled from Otjozondjupa. In addition, one feed sample was taken from Otjozondjupa. DNA was isolated using the GeneSpin DNA extraction kit. The DNA concentration was confirmed by spectrophotometry using a NanoDrop (ThermoFisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USAtific, USA). The purity of the DNA was confirmed through visualization using agarose TBE gel electrophoresis. Screening for the adventitious presence of GM content, the Eurofins GMO Screen RT IPC (NR) 35S/NOS/ABII kit was used. Most (41.5%) of the maize samples screened for the presence of GMO content showed positive results for food samples. In 2015, all three foods sampled in the Ohangwena region tested positive, while in the Oshikoto region, two samples also contained GM content.  All wheat samples tested negative for GMOs during the two years. The overall study shows the prevalence of GMOs in Namibia.


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How to Cite
Mungeyi, P., Chimwamurombe, P., & Kangueehi, G. N. (2024). Ascertaining the Presence of Genetic Modification in Seeds, Processed Food, and Feed Products in Namibia. European Journal of Science, Innovation and Technology, 4(1), 15-30. Retrieved from