Influence of Solpawa SBR-Xtm Doses on Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants in Sandy Soil at Different Depths

  • Achinike Okogbule-Wonodi
  • Bright Nweke
Keywords: Solpawa nutrient, Sandy Soil, Crude Oil, Bioremediation


This study investigated the effectiveness of Solpawa conditioner and Solpawa booster (an indigenous formulated nutrient) in the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils (sandy). The bioremediation process was for combined effects for Solpawa conditioner and Solpawa booster. The experiment was carried out at Rivers Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (RIART) in Rivers State University, Nkpolu, Port Harcourt. Soil samples with crude oil were bulk in four (4) reactors (T1, T2, T3, T4) with three replications. The physiochemical properties of the initial soil conditions, Solpawa conditioner and Solpawa booster were analyzed in the laboratory. The physiochemical properties of bioremediated soil for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) were analyzed in the laboratory before and after bioremediation. The result showed that TPH degraded severely in all the treatment options at the end of the bioremediation period of 52 days. TPH percentage reduction ranged from 9.00 to 96.47 % in all treatment options for the period of 52 days for the three depths, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) result also revealed significance difference at 0.05 level of significance. Additionally, the developed multiple linear regression models were for TPH with Solpawa conditioner/water ratio of 1:4, 1:6, and 1:8 and Solpawa boaster. The multiple linear regression model showed good agreement between measured and predicted data. The models were validated with coefficient of determination (r2), adjusted (r2), and root mean square error (RMSE). Models’ prediction achieved in this study can be categorized as almost good for high coefficient of determination (r2), adjusted r2 and low RMSE. It is therefore suggested that the model can be used for predicting TPH concentration for petroleum contaminated soils (sandy) remediated with different ratios of Solpawa conditioner/water and Solpawa boaster, with respect to the bioremediation period.


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How to Cite
Okogbule-Wonodi, A., & Nweke, B. (2023). Influence of Solpawa SBR-Xtm Doses on Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants in Sandy Soil at Different Depths. European Journal of Science, Innovation and Technology, 3(5), 197-205. Retrieved from