Understanding the Complex Factors behind Students Dropping Out of School
This study aimed to identify factors affecting students dropping out of school through multiple lenses. It employed a qualitative research design with the key informant interview as the mode of data collection. Data were obtained from 25 key informants and they primarily fall within the age range of 18 to 19, 20 to 21, and 21 and above, indicating that the study focuses on young adults who dropped out of school. There is a fairly even distribution of male and female key informants, suggesting that both genders are represented in the study. The majority of key informants dropped out of school during their senior high school years, particularly in Grade 12. Moreover, the study identifies several key factors contributing to school dropouts, including the need to work and help the family, teenage pregnancy, difficulty coping with academic demands, bullying incidents, lack of motivation, and parental influence. These findings align with the principles of self-determination theory (SDT), which emphasizes the importance of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in motivating and retaining students in educational settings. The study highlights how external factors, such as the need to work and parental influence, can limit students' autonomy and motivation, potentially leading to disengagement and dropout. It also underscores the impact of academic struggles on students' competence and motivation, indicating that persistent academic challenges can erode confidence and motivation to continue their education.
Aragonés-González, M., Rosser-Limiñana, A., & Gil-González, D. (2020). Coeducation and gender equality in education systems: A scoping review. Children and youth services review, 111, 104837.
Atilano, E. B., Desipeda, C. J., Domingo, Z. J., Garbin, S. N., & Omanito, R. A. (2016). Factors influencing the dropout rate in Alternative Learning System Accreditation and Equivalency Program. The Online Journal of New Horizons in Education, 6(4), 99-109.
Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241-258).
Brooks, I. (2006). Organisational behaviour. London: Pearson Education Limited.
Cameron, S. V., & Heckman, J. J. (1998). Life Cycle Schooling and Dynamic Selection Bias: Models and Evidence for Five Cohorts of American Males. Journal of Political Economy, 106(2), 262-333.
Campbell, C. (2015). The socioeconomic consequences of dropping out of high school: Evidence from an analysis of siblings. Social science research, 51, 108-118.
Chisamya, G., DeJaeghere, J., Kendall, N., & Khan, M. A. (2012). Gender and education for all: Progress and problems in achieving gender equity. International journal of educational development, 32(6), 743-755.
De Witte, K., Cabus, S., Thyssen, G., Groot, W., & van Den Brink, H. M. (2013). A critical review of the literature on school dropout. Educational Research Review, 10, 13-28.
Dropout rate (2006). In Philippine statistics authority. https://psa.gov.ph/content/dropout-rate
Fall, A. M., & Roberts, G. (2012). High school dropouts: Interactions between social context, self-perceptions, school engagement, and student dropout. Journal of adolescence, 35(4), 787-798.
Graeff-Martin, A., Oswald, S., Obst Comassetto, J. et al. (2006). A package of interventions to reduce school dropout in public schools in a developing country. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 15(8), 442-449. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41274-016-0109-z
Golez, P. (2018). K-12 blamed for ‘high dropout rate’ in schools. Panay news. https://www.panaynews.net/k-12-blamed-forhigh-dropout-rate-in-schools/
Ioana, M. I., Anda, M. I., Cornelia, P., & Mariana, C. R. (2015). School dropout–A social problem in Romania. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 182, 623-628.
Jimerson, S., Egeland, B., Sroufe, L. A., & Carlson, B. (2000). A prospective longitudinal study of high school dropouts examining multiple predictors across development. Journal of school psychology, 38(6), 525-549.
Jordan, W. J., Lara, J., & McPartland, J. M. (1996). Exploring the causes of early dropout among race-ethnic and gender groups. Youth & Society, 28(1), 62-94.
Parreño, S. J. (2023). School dropouts in the Philippines: causes, changes and statistics. Sapienza: International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 4(1), e23002-e23002.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78.
Sabates, R., Hossain, A., & Lewin, K. M. (2013). School drop out in Bangladesh: Insights using panel data. International Journal of Educational Development, 33(3), 225-232.
UNESCO (2015). Education for all 2015 national review: Philippines. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000230331
Copyright (c) 2023 Francis Thaise A. Cimene, Angel-April C. Albino, Rouche Amschel J. Mijares, Flora Pacilita M. Hallazgo, Mary Jean Austria, Leah Marie C. Corporal, Rorilie T. Elarcosa, Flora Mae B. Quipanes, Stephanie N. Recto, Rewie Jane D. Villaflor
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.