MMPI-2 Use with Transgender Populations
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) is the most widely researched personality and psychopathology assessment used with transgender populations (Keo-Meier & Fitzgerald, 2017). Since its development, research on the MMPI-2 has demonstrated that inappropriate use of gendered norms with transgender individuals can negatively affect MMPI-2 protocol results and interpretation (Michel et al., 2002). As the MMPI-2 is used in several high-stakes evaluations affecting decisions regarding employment, child custody, and gender reassignment readiness (Keo-Meier & Fitzgerald, 2017), understanding the appropriate use of this instrument for transgender populations is necessary to prevent harmful recommendations and outcomes. While some gender-free assessments are available, the MMPI-2 measures a broad range of personality and psychopathology and has demonstrated sound validity and reliability, causing it to be perceived as a preferred instrument for many clinicians (Butcher et al., 2010; Graham, 2011). This paper provides recommendations regarding the appropriate use of the MMPI-2 with this population.
Bonierbale, M., Baumstarck, K., Maquigneau, A., Gorin-Lazard, A., Boyer, L., Loundou, A., Auquier, P., & Lançon, C. (2016). MMPI-2 profile of French transsexuals: The role of sociodemographic and clinical factors. A cross-sectional design. Scientific Reports, 6, 24281. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep24281
Butcher, J. N., Graham, J. R., Ben-Porath, Y. S., Tellegen, A., & Dahlstrom, W. G. (2001). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2): Manual for Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation, Revised Edition. Pearson.
de Vries, A. L. C., Kreukels, B. P. C., Steensma, T. D., Doreleijers, T. A. H., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2011). Comparing adult and adolescent transsexuals: An MMPI-2 and MMPI-A study. Psychiatry Research, 186(2–3), 414–418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2010.07.033
Gómez-Gil, E., Vidal-Hagemeijer, A., & Salamero, M. (2008). MMPI–2 characteristics of transsexuals requesting sex reassignment: Comparison of patients in prehormonal and presurgical phases. Journal of Personality Assessment, 90(4), 368–374. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223890802108022
Graham, J. R. (2011). MMPI-2: Assessing personality and psychopathology (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Han, K., Colarelli, S. M., & Weed, N. C. (2019). Methodological and statistical advances in the consideration of cultural diversity in assessment: A critical review of group classification and measurement invariance testing. Psychological Assessment, 31(12), 1481–1496. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000731
Henrich, S. (2020). Gender identity assessment with trans individuals – findings of a systematic literature review of assessment instruments and ethical considerations. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, 6(3), 203–216. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCRPP-01-2020-0014
Karia, S., Jamsandekar, S., Alure, A., De Sousa, A., & Shah, N. (2016). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 profiles of patients with gender identity disorder requesting sex reassignment surgery. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 38(5), 443–446. https://doi.org/10.4103/0253-7176.191378
Keo-Meier, C. L., & Fitzgerald, K. M. (2017). Affirmative psychological testing and neurocognitive assessment with transgender adults. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 40(1), 51–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2016.10.011
Keo-Meier, C. L., Herman, L. I., Reisner, S. L., Pardo, S. T., Sharp, C., Babcock, J.C. (2015). Testosterone treatment and MMPI–2 improvement in transgender men: A prospective controlled study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 83(1), 143–156. https://doi-org.fgul.idm.oclc.org/10.1037/a0037599
Miach, P. P., Berah, E. F., Butcher, J. N., & Rouse, S. (2000). Utility of the MMPI-2 in assessing gender dysphoric patients. Journal of Personality Assessment, 75(2), 268–279. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327752JPA7502_7
Michel, A., Legros, J. J., Cornet, J. P., Ansseau, M., Pitchot, W., & Mormont, C. (2002). Comparisons of two groups of sex-change applicants based on the MMPI. Psychological Reports, 91(1), 233-240. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.2002.91.1.233
Copyright (c) 2023 Kelly J. Walk, Suchika Siotia
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.