MMPI-2 Use with Transgender Populations

  • Kelly J. Walk
  • Suchika Siotia
Keywords: personality, individual differences, gender, transgender, MMPI-2


The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) is the most widely researched personality and psychopathology assessment used with transgender populations (Keo-Meier & Fitzgerald, 2017). Since its development, research on the MMPI-2 has demonstrated that inappropriate use of gendered norms with transgender individuals can negatively affect MMPI-2 protocol results and interpretation (Michel et al., 2002). As the MMPI-2 is used in several high-stakes evaluations affecting decisions regarding employment, child custody, and gender reassignment readiness (Keo-Meier & Fitzgerald, 2017), understanding the appropriate use of this instrument for transgender populations is necessary to prevent harmful recommendations and outcomes. While some gender-free assessments are available, the MMPI-2 measures a broad range of personality and psychopathology and has demonstrated sound validity and reliability, causing it to be perceived as a preferred instrument for many clinicians (Butcher et al., 2010; Graham, 2011). This paper provides recommendations regarding the appropriate use of the MMPI-2 with this population.


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How to Cite
Walk, K. J., & Siotia, S. (2023). MMPI-2 Use with Transgender Populations. European Journal of Science, Innovation and Technology, 3(5), 88-93. Retrieved from