Exploring the Lived Experience of Pupil’s Success in the Linear Programming with a View to Develop a Framework Dupped HALP

  • Mwambazi Chrispine Mulenga
  • Mubanga Lombe
  • Francis Simui
Keywords: Absenteeism, Hermeneutic Analysis Linear Programming Framework, Nkeyema Secondary School, Communities, Linear Programming, Academic Performance, Government, Ministry of Education


This article explores the lived experience of pupil’s success in the linear programming with a view to develop a framework dupped HALP at Nkeyema Secondary School in Zambia. An inquiry based on interpretive technique was carried out. In total, 15 pupils—eight females and seven males—participated in the study. These were former grade twelve pupils from Nkeyema secondary schools. All the participants were selected using homogenous purposive sampling. The data was generated through semi-structured interviews and group discussion which was thematically analysed. The study revealed that learning linear programming was fraught with difficulties. Some of them were: the distance pupils were covering; lack of appropriate teaching/learning materials such as textbooks and computers; pupils’ poor learning background in linear programming; family support; poor methodology used by some teachers among others. Based on the above highlighted disablers, the study suggests that the Ministry of Education should build schools near to the communities in order to lessen the distance pupils cover and curb absenteeism. It should also allocate adequate funds to schools for the procurement of teaching/learning materials. There should be additional homework assignments for linear programming so that students can do more research. Government should construct more boarding schools, and school administration should create meal arrangements to motivate pupils.


Abdullah, N., Halim, L., & Zakaria, E. (2018). A thinking strategy and visual representation approach in mathematical word problem solving toward enhancing STEM literacy. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 10(3), 165-174.
Adino (2015). Teacher Factors Influencing Students' Academic Achievement in Secondary schools in Nyandarua County, Kenya. Int. J. Educ. Res., 1(3), 1-14.
Ainscow, M., Howes, A., & Tweddle, D. (2006). Moving practice forward at the district level. In M. Ainscow & West (Eds.) Improving Urban Schools: Leadership and Collaboration. Open University Press. http://www.humanities.manchester.ac.uk/medialibrary/edutest/files/cee/moving-practice-forward-at-district-level.doc.
Andaya, O. J. (2014). Factors that affect mathematics achievements of students of Philippine normal university - Isabela campus. Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce, 5(4), 83-91. Retrieved July 1, 2023 from https://search.proquest.com/openview/b8d6f54b27fe6498d21eac3240f59ae5/1.pdf?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=556342
Asempapa, R. S. (2022). Examining practicing teachers’ knowledge and attitudes toward mathematical modelling. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science, and Technology (IJEMST), 10(2), 272-292.
Barwell, R. (2018). From language as a resource to sources of meaning in multilingual mathematics classrooms. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 50, 155‒168.
Basriati, S. (2018). Integer Linear Programming Dengan Pendekatan Metode Cutting Plane dan Branch and Bound Untuk Optimasi Produksi Tahu. Jurnal Sains Matematika dan Statistika, 4(2), 95-104.
Berger, N., Mackenzie, E., & Holmes, K. (2020). Positive attitudes towards mathematics and science are mutually beneficial for student achievement: a latent profile analysis of TIMSS 2015. Aust Educ Res, 47(3), 409–444. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13384-020-00379-8
Bernard, H.R. (2011). Research methods in anthropology (5th ed.). Alta Mira Press.
Bertram, C. & Christiansen, I. (2016). Understanding research: An introduction to reading research. Van Schaik Publishers, Pretoria.
Blum, W. (2015). Quality Teaching of Mathematical Modelling: What Do We Know, What Can We Do? The Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Mathematical Education, 73-96.
Brijlall, D. & Ndlovu, Z. (2013). High school learners’ mental construction during solving optimisation problems in calculus: A South African case study. South African Journal of Education, 33(2).
Brijlall, D. (2011). Error detection as mathematical catalyst: Part 1. Learning and Teaching Mathematics, 11, 35-36.
Brijlall, D. (2012). Error detection as mathematical catalyst: Part 2. Learning and Teaching Mathematics, 12, 27-29.
Brown, S., Naiker, M., Sharma, B., Wakeling, L., Johnson, J., Mani, J., ... & Khan, N. (2020). Attitudes towards science among senior secondary students in Fiji.Waikato Journal of Education, 25(1), 57–72. https://doi.org/10.15663/wje.v25i0.704
Changwe, R. & Mulenga, I. M. (2018). Mathematics Teacher Education Curriculum at a University in Zambia. Student Teachers’ Acquisition of Appropriate Competencies for Teaching Mathematics in Secondary School. Multidisciplinary Journal of Language and Social Sciences Education, 1(1), 207-242.
Changwe, R. (2017). Effectiveness of the mathematics teacher education curriculum at the University of Zambia in preparing secondary school teachers of mathematics (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Zambia).
Chen, L., Bae, S. R., Battista, C., Qin, S., Chen, T., Evans, T. M., & Menon, V. (2018). Positive attitude toward math supports early academic success: Behavioral evidence and neurocognitive mechanisms. Psychological Science, 29(3), 390-402. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797617735528
Chileshe, C. A., Mkandawire, S. B. and Tambulukani, G. K. (2018). Primary Reading Programme Versus Primary Literacy Programme: Exploring their Similarities and Differences. Journal of Lexicography and Terminology, 2(2), 77-102.
Clarke, V. & Braun, V. (2013). Teaching thematic analysis: Over-coming challenges and developing strategies for effective learning. The Psychologist, 26(2), 120-123. http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/21155.
Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2018). Research methods in education. London: Routledge.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000). Research methods in education (5th ed.). London: Routledge.
Cohen, M. B., Lee, Y. T., & Song, Z. (2018). Solving Linear Programs in the Current Matrix Multiplication Time. 51st Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing. STOC'19. arXiv:1810.07896
Cohn, F. (2001). Existential medicine: Martin Buber and physician-patient relationships. J. Contin. Educ. Health, 21, 170–181. doi:10.1002/chp.1340210308.
Costello, J. (1991). Teaching and Learning Mathematics. London: Routlodge, Chapman.
Creswell, J. W. & Plano Clark, V. L. (2018). Designing and conducting mixed methods research (3rd ed.). SAGE, Los Angeles, CA.
Creswell, J. W. & Poth, C. N. (2016). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry and research design (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Daroczy, G., Wolska, M., Meurers, W. D., & Nuerk, H. C. (2015). Word problems: A review of linguistic and numerical factors contributing to their difficulty. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(348), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg .2015.00348 .
Denzin, N.K. & Lincoln, Y.S. (2020). The Sage handbook of qualitative research. Sage, Los Angeles, CA.
Desarrollo, I. (2007). The Quality of Education in Latin America and Carribean Latin America. Research Work Institute Desarrollo, Paraguay.
Enu, J. A., Agyman, O. K., & Nkum, D. (2015). Factors influencing students’ mathematics performance in some selected colleges of education in Ghana. Int J Edu Learn Develop, 3(3), 68–74.
Examination Council of Zambia. (2016). Examinations Performance Analysis Report 2016. Lusaka, Zambia.
Examinations Council of Zambia. (2017). Examinations Performance Review Report 2017. Examinations Council of Zambia, Lusaka.
Examinations Council of Zambia. (2018). Examinations Performance Review Report 2018. Examinations Council of Zambia, Lusaka.
Fuchs, L. S., Gilbert, J. K., Fuchs, D., Seethaler, P. M., & Martin, B.N. (2018). Text comprehension and oral language as predictors of word-problem solving: Insights into word-problem solving as a form of text comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading, 22(2), 152–166. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888 438.2017.13982 59.
Goulet-Lyle, M. P., Voyer, D., & Verschaffel, L. (2020). How does imposing a step-by-step solution method impact students’ approach to mathematical word problem solving? ZDM Math Educ, 52(1), 139–149. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858- 019-01098-w
Hansen, M., Levesque, E., Valant, J., & Quintero, D. (2018). The 2018 Brown Center report on American education: How well are American students learning. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
Heidegger, M. (1996). Being and time: A translation of Sein and Zeit (J. Stambaugh, Trans.). Albany, New York: State University of New York Press.
Husserl, E. (1970). The crisis of European sciences and transcendental phenomenology. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. (Original work published 1936).
Iheanachor, O. U. (2017). The Influence of Teachers Background, Professional Development and Teaching Practices on Students Achievement in Mathematics in Lesotho. University of South Africa.
Julius, E., Abdullah, A. H., & Suhairom, N. (2018). Attitude of students towards solving problems in algebra: a review of Nigeria secondary schools. IOSR J Res Method Educ 8(1), 26–31. https://doi.org/10.9790/7388-0801032631
Kaabo, E. (2019). Teachers’ Strategies in the teaching of Linear Programming in Selected Secondary Schools in Monze district – Zambia (Dissertation, The university of Zambia Lusaka).
Kafata, F. & Mbetwa, S. K. (2016). An Investigation into the Failure Rate in Mathematics and Science at Grade Twelve (12) Examinations and Its Impact to the School of Engineering: A Case Study of Kitwe District of Zambia. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 5(8), 71-93.
Koji, S. (2016). An Investigation into challenges faced by secondary school teachers and pupils in the teaching and learning of algebraic linear equations. University of Zambia Press.
Kumar, J. (2018). Teachers ‘and students ‘perceptions and experiences of mathematics assessments in Fiji: a case study of a rural and an urban primary school (Master’s thesis). Pretoria (South Africa): University of the South Pacific.
Kusmaryano, I. (2014). The importance of mathematical power in mathematics learning. Semarang State University. Retrieved July 1, 2019 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303459705_THE_IMPORTANCE_OF_MATHE MATICAL_POWER_IN_MATHEMATICS_LEARNING
Lamichhane, K. (2017). Teaching students with visual impairments in an inclusive educational setting: a case from Nepal. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 21(1), 1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2016.1184323.
Langdridge, D. (2007). Phenomenological psychology: Theory, research and methods. London: Pearson.
Lasco, M. & Raganas, N. (2016). Performance–Based Learning Experiences and Achievement of Grade VII Freshmen in Elementary Algebra 1: Effective Inputs for the Enhancement of the K-12 Teaching Guide.
Lee, Y. T., Song, Z., & Zhang, Q. (2019). Solving Empirical Risk Minimization in the Current Matrix Multiplication Time. Conference on Learning Theory. COLT'19. arXiv:1905.04447.
Luneta, K. (2022). Effects of Training in Strategic Questioning on Children’s Problem-Solving Performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(3), 307–317.
Makondo, P. V., & Makondo, D. (2020). Causes of Poor Academic Performance in Mathematics at Ordinary Level: A Case of Mausami High School, Zimbabwe. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI), 9(6), 10-18.
Mistima, S., Maat, B., & Zakaria, E. (2010). The learning environment, teacher’s factor and students’ attitude towards Mathematics amongst engineering technology students. Int. J. Acad. Res., 2, 16–20.
MOE report. (2013). School Certificate and General Certificate Examiners Reports October/ November 2006 Examinations. Chief Examiners Report.
Mulenga, I. M. & Kabombwe, Y, M. (2019). A competency-based curriculum for primary and secondary schools: learning from theory and some countries around the world. International Journal of Education and Research, 7(2), 117-130.
Mutegi, C. M., Gitonga, C. M., & Rugano, P. (2021). Mathematics Anxiety, Attitude and Performance among Secondary School Students in Kenya. Educational Research and Reviews, 16(6), 226-235.
Mwanza, C. & Mkandawire, S. B. (2020). From Curriculum Guide to Classroom Practice: Teachers of English Language Narratives of the 2013 Revised Curriculum Implementation in Zambia. Multidisciplinary Journal of Language and Social Sciences Education, 3(2), 193-215.
Mwanza, C. & Silukuni, D. (2020). Implementation of the Free Education Policy in Primary Schools in Kafue District: Is it a Compromise on Quality of Education in Zambia? European Journal of Education Studies, 7(9), 317-333.
Nakhanu, B., Shikuku, & Wasike. (2015). Problem based learning and its effect on Kenyan Secondary School students learning outcomes in linear programming. Point Journal of Educational Research and Behavioural Sciences, 1(2), 001- 008.
Neuman, W. L. (2003). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ejesc/article/viewFile/65384/53078.
Ngussa, B. M., & Mbuti, E. E. (2017). The Influence of Humour on Learners’ Attitude and Mathematics Achievement: A Case of Secondary Schools in Arusha City, Tanzania. Journal of Educational Research, 2(3), 170-777.
OECD. PISA (2018). OECD Publishing: Paris, France, 2019.
Ogan, G., & George, N. (2015). Investigating Difficult Concepts in Senior Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum as Perceived by Students. International Journal of Academic Research and Reflection, 3(6), 67-75.
Olusegun, S. (2015). Constructivism learning theory: a paradigm for teaching and learning. J Res Method Educ, 5(6), 66–70. https://doi.org/10.9790/7388-05616670
Opolot-Okurut, C. (2010). Classroom learning environment and motivation towards mathematics among secondary school students in Uganda. Learning Environments Research, 13, 267-277.
Pepin, B. (2011). Pupils’ attitudes towards mathematics: A comparative study of Norwegian and English secondary students. ZDM Int J Math Educ, 43(4), 535–546. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-011-0314-9
Poku, D. A. (2019). Analysis of JHS students’ attitudes toward mathematics and its effect on the academic achievement: the case of Asunafo South District.
Pongsakdi, N., Kajamies, A., Veermans, K., Lertola, K., Vauras, M., & Lehtinen, E. (2020). What makes mathematical word problem solving challenging? Exploring the roles of word problem characteristics, text comprehension, and arithmetic skills. ZDM Mathematics Education, 52, 33–44.
Powell, S. R., Berry, K. A., & Benz, S. A. (2020). Analyzsing the word-problem performance and strategies of students experiencing mathematics difficulty. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 58, Article 100759. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmathb.2020.100759
Qian, Y., Hambrusch, S., Yadav, A., Gretter, S., & Li, Y. (2020). Teachers’ Perceptions of Student Misconceptions in Introductory Programming. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 58(2), 364–397.
Sakayombo, J. (2018), Learners Low Performance in School Mathematics: A Result of their Insufficient Acquisition of Ethno mathematics. Zambia Journal of Teacher Professional Growth (ZJTPG), 4(1), 55-66.
Salim, A. A., & Alfian, A. (2021). Perencanaan Produksi untuk Mengoptimalkan Keuntungan dengan Metode Branch and Bound di UKM ''X''. Saintek, 5, 30-38.
Santia, I., & Kusumaningrum, V. (2017). The mathematical connections of slow learner student a case study in inclusion class YBPK, Kediri. Pancaran Pendidikan, 6(4), 41-48.
Schadewitz, N. & Jachna, T. (2007). Comparing Inductive and Deductive Methodologies for Design Patterns Identification and Articulation. IASDR07 International Association of Societies of Design Research. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong.
Schervish, M. J., Seidenfeld, T., Stern, R. B., & Kadane, J. B. (2020). What finite-additivity can add to decision theory. Statistical Methods & Applications, 29(2), 237-263.
Schutz, A., & Luckmann, T. (1973). Structures of the life-world. London, United Kingdom: Heinemann Educational Books.
Simui, F. (2018). Lived experiences of students with visual impairments at Sim University in Zambia: A hermeneutic phenomenological approach (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, University of Zambia). http:// dspace.unza.zm/handle/123456789/5884
Sirin, A. (2015). Healthy lifestyle behaviors and self-efficacy: The effect of education. Anthropologist, 21(1, 2), 89-97.
Skemp, R. (1976). Relational understanding and instrumental understanding. Mathematics Teaching, 77, 20-26.
Smith, J.A, & Johnson, K.L. (2018). The primary tenant strategy for the development of students’ conceptual application skills. Journal of education, 45(2), 123-136.
Suleiman, Y. & Hammed, A. (2019). Perceived causes of students’ failure in mathematics in kwara state junior secondary schools: implication for educational managers. Int J Educ Stud Math, 6(1), 19–33.
Tshabalala, T., & Ncube, A. C. (2012). Causes of poor performance of ordinary level pupils in mathematics in rural secondary schools in Nkayi district: Learner’s attributions. Nova Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences, 1(1), 1-6. doi:10.20286/novajmbs- 010113
UNEB. (2016). Uganda National Examinations Board, Report on work of Uganda Certificate of Examinations candidates. Kampala, Uganda.
UNEB. (2020). Uganda National Examinations Board, Report on work of Uganda Certificate of Examinations candidates. Kampala, Uganda.
UNESCO. (2018), Strengthening Peer Learning of Education Policies for SDG 4: The Role of Regional Organizations. 2020 Global Education Monitoring Report Team (GEM Report). Paris.
UNESCO. (2018). Strengthening Peer Learning of Education Policies for SDG 4: The Role of Regional Organizations. 2020 Global Education Monitoring Report Team (GEM Report). Paris. UNESCO.
Van Manen, M. (1997). Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. London, ON: The Althouse Press.
Van Manen, M. (2002). Phenomenology online. Retrieved from http://www.phenomenologyonline.com/
Van Manen, M. (2007). Phenomenology of practice. Phenomenology & Practice, 1(1), 11.
Van Manen, M. (2011). Hermeneutic interview reflection. Retrieved from http://www.phenomenologyonline.com/inquiry/methods-procedures/reflective-methods/hermeneutic-interview-reflection/
Verschaffel, L., Schukajlow, S., Star, J., & Van Dooren, W. (2020). Word problem in mathematics education: A survey. ZDM Mathematics Education, 52(1), 1–16.
Wagner, D. & Moschkovich, J. N. (2018). International perspectives on language and communication in mathematics education. In Language and Communication in Mathematics Education, 3‒9. Springer.
Willis, J. (2010). A study guide for learning and to love mathematics: teaching strategies that change students’ attitude and get results. Oxford.
Yara, P.O. & Otieno, K.O. (2010). Teaching/Learning Resources and Academic Performance in Mathematics in Secondary Schools in Bondo District of Kenya. Asian Social Science, 6(12), 126-132.
How to Cite
Mulenga, M. C., Lombe, M., & Simui, F. (2023). Exploring the Lived Experience of Pupil’s Success in the Linear Programming with a View to Develop a Framework Dupped HALP. European Journal of Science, Innovation and Technology, 3(4), 331-355. Retrieved from https://ejsit-journal.com/index.php/ejsit/article/view/262