Solid Phase Extraction and Its Possible Application in the Pre-Analysis of Organochlorines (OCs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCBs) Using Different Solvent Variables

  • Edjere Oghenekohwiroro
  • Chukwuka Nwosu Nnamdi
  • Martins Eworitse Toritseju
  • Esther Ahamefula Ozichi
  • Jeffery Isukuru Efe
Keywords: Solid Phase Extraction, Organochlorines (OCs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Solvent Variables, Sample Recovery


Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) is a widely used sample preparation technique in analytical chemistry. This research aims to evaluate the performance of different solvent variables in SPE for the pre-analysis of Organochlorines (OCs) and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The recovery levels of 26 OCs and 7 PCBs were determined using various solvent mixtures. The study employed the use of simulated samples by using carefully crafted standards for accuracy and reproducibility. The standard used was prepared as follows: to 1ml 1,11-Dibromundekan (Sigma-Aldrich), 200 µl PCB Mix 3 (10 ng/µl) Accu standard and 50µl Pesticide Mix 24 (20ng/µl) LGC standard are added in 20 ml measuring flask and filled to the appropriate mark. This gave a concentration of 100ng/ml dosage on each cartridge. SPE cartridges containing different sorbent materials such as Florisil, glass powder, SAX, SCX, SI, and PE-AX were tested for their efficiency in extracting OCs and PCBs. The eluates from the SPE cartridges were analysed using Gas Chromatography coupled with an Electron Capture Detector (GC/ECD) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) for confirmation. The results showed varying recovery percentages for different OCs and PCBs using different SPE cartridges and solvent variables. Each SPE material exhibited unique extraction capabilities. Florisil cartridges showed promising results in capturing both polar and nonpolar compounds. SAX cartridges were effective in extracting weakly acidic compounds, while SCX cartridges were suitable for basic compounds. This research provides valuable insights into the efficiency of SPE for the pre-analysis of OCs and PCBs. The results highlight the importance of selecting appropriate solvent variables and SPE materials to optimize the recovery of target analytes. These findings can contribute to the development of more accurate and reliable methods for the analysis of OCs and PCBs in various environmental samples.


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How to Cite
Oghenekohwiroro, E., Nnamdi, C. N., Toritseju, M. E., Ozichi, E. A., & Efe, J. I. (2023). Solid Phase Extraction and Its Possible Application in the Pre-Analysis of Organochlorines (OCs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCBs) Using Different Solvent Variables. European Journal of Science, Innovation and Technology, 3(4), 245-256. Retrieved from