Signal Tracking and Acquisition Model for Handoff Process in 4G Network

  • V. N. Okorogu
  • C. S. Okafor
  • C. O. Ezeagwu
Keywords: Quality of Service (QoS), Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), Base Station (BS), Received Signal Strength (RSSI), Call Drop Rate (CDR), Grade of Service (GoS)


Since network providers must adhere to the Quality of Service (QoS) standard when delivering network services to customers, the focus of this paper is on the development of signal tracking and acquisition models in 4G networks. The Nigerian Communication Commission (NCC) being the regulatory body established some key performance indicators (KPIs) that the network providers must follow in order to determine whether the implemented model will increase mobility and handoff management as well as improve QoS delivery. Within the Base Station (BS) footprint for the one week of Drive Tests, where measurements were made at intervals of 600m radii, the Received Signal Strength (RSSI) in the characterized 4G network demonstrated strong signals in the range of -50dBm to -80dBm. Mathematical calculations using the field experimental data collected and MATLAB SIMULINK show full agreement with NCC benchmark. The Call Drop Rate (CDR) is 14% while NCC benchmark is  20%. The Grade of Service (GoS) is 1.5%, which is in line with the NCC guideline of 1% to 2%. The proposed model's Handoff Success Rate (HOSR) is 91.2%; the NCC benchmark is 80%.


Adnan, M., Hilles, S.M.S. & Yafooz, W.M.S. (2017). An Evolution to Next Generation Heterogenous Cellular Network. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, 17(4), 251–255.
Aibinu, A. M., Onumanyi, A. J., Adedigba, A. P., Ipinyomi, M., Folorunso, T. A., & Salami, M. J. E. (2017). Development of hybrid artificial intelligent based handover decision algorithm. Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, 20(2), 381-390.
Akyildiz, I. F., Xie, J., & Mohanty, S. (2004). A survey of mobility management in next-generation all-IP-based wireless systems. IEEE Wireless Communications, 11(4), 16-28.
Bhatt, M., Chokshi, R., Desai, S., Panichpapiboon, S., Wisitpongphan, N., & Tonguz, O. K. (2003, October). Impact of mobility on the performance of ad hoc wireless networks. In 2003 IEEE 58th Vehicular Technology Conference. VTC 2003-Fall (IEEE Cat. No. 03CH37484) (Vol. 5, pp. 3025-3029). IEEE.
Hiussi, F.M., Khotimsky, D.A., & Krishnan, S. (2000). Mobility management in Third Generation all IP networks. IEEE Communications Magazine, 40(9), 124-135.
Karim, B. A., & Othman, B. R. (2020). Study of Uplink Interference in UMTS Network: ASIACELL Company, Iraq. Kurdistan Journal of Applied Research, 5(1), 137-148.
Leisen, B. & Vance, C. (2001). Cross-National Assessment of Service Quality in the Telecommunication Industry: Evidence from the USA and Germany. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 11(5), 307-317.
Maduka, N. C., Okafor, C. S. & Archibong, E. I. (2021). Investigation of Quality of Service (QoS) Of GSM Network Providers at Federal University, Gusau, Zamfara State. Nigerian Journal of Physics, 30(2), 77-85.
Nnebe, S. U., Oranugo, C.O., Okafor, C.S. & Odeh, I.O. (2021). The Impact of Interference on UMTS/LTE Network Technology in a Highly Dense Environment. International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS), 8(11), 48-54.
Nnebe, S.U., Odeh, I.O., Okafor, C.S., & Ugbe, O.C. (2023). Evaluating the Level of Interference in UMTS/LTE Heterogeneous Network System. International Journal of Informatics and Communication Technology (IJ-ICT), 12(2), 92-102.
Nnebe, S.U., Onyeyili, T.I., Okafor, C.S., & Agubata, F.N. (2022). Multicell Environment: Tool for Capacity Enhancement of LTE Spectrum using Adaptive Modulation. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, 11(3), 42-51.
Nwalozie, G. C., Okorogu, V.N., Oguadinma, C. A., & Ugwuda, V.O. (2013). Optimization of hard handoff in Mobile Communications Using IPV6. International Journal of Computing Science and Information Technology, 1(2), 22-31.
Oliver, R. L. (1980). A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions. Journal of Marketing Research, 17(4), 460-469.
Särelä, M., & Hietalahti, M. (2004). Security Topics and Mobility Management in Hierarchical Ad Hoc Networks: A Literature Survey. Interim report of project Samoyed. Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory for Theoretical Computer Science.
Singh, R. K., & Singh, R. (2016). 4G LTE Cellular Technology: Network Architecture and Mobile Standards. International Journal of Emerging Research in Management & Technology, 5(12), 1-6.
Theus, H. (2015). Mobility Prediction in MANETs. Master’s Thesis - Winter Term 2015, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.
Ufoaroh S.U., Irechukwu O., Obioma P.C., & Okafor C.S. (2021). Development of an Enhanced Fuzzy-Logic Based Algorithm for Improved Handoffs in Long Term Evolution (LTE) Systems. International Journal of Advances in Engineering and Management (IJAEM), 3(8), 464-480.
Xie, J., & Wang, X. (2008). A survey of mobility management in hybrid wireless mesh networks. IEEE Network, 22(6), 34-40.
How to Cite
Okorogu, V. N., Okafor, C. S., & Ezeagwu, C. O. (2023). Signal Tracking and Acquisition Model for Handoff Process in 4G Network. European Journal of Science, Innovation and Technology, 3(4), 123-136. Retrieved from