Instrumental Neutron Activation Technique in Characterization of Elements in Organs of Some Fish Species Harvested from Zobe Dam, Katsina State
Instrumental neutron activation technique has shown to be a reliable tool for its non-destructive, multi-elemental capability for analysis in various matrices. This technique has been applied to investigate the concentration of chemical elements in organs of Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus fish varieties harvested from Zobe Dam, Katsina State, Nigeria in order to determine the essential elements and toxic elements that may pose health risk to humans when consumed. Twenty-one (21) elements, namely Mg, Al, Cl, Ca, Cr, V, Cu, I, Mn, Na, K, As, Br, La, Sm, Sc, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, and Ba, were detected. These elements could be categorized into three main groups; the essential elements, Fe, Cu, Al, Zn, Cr, Mg, Ca, Cl, I, Mn, Na, K, and Co; non-essential elements, Ba, Rb, V, La, Sc, and Sm; and possibly toxic elements, As and Br. The dietary intake of some essential and toxic elements was estimated for tissue of the studied fishes by considering WHO/FAO tolerable daily intake of adults (TDI/70 kg). Although, the results of our analysis showed most of the concentrations of the detected elements exceeded the maximum guidelines set, however, the results of the estimated dietary intake show that the concentrations of all the identified elements in tissue of both fish species including the potential toxic elements (As and Br) are well below the toxicological reference values provided by the WHO/FAO and were found within the nutritional threshold. Therefore, consumption of tissue of the studied fish species is considered safe.
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