The Impact of Teacher Training Materials Used in Primary Schools on Efficient Learning of Dyslexic Students
Due to the inability of dyslexic students in grasping the recognition of words and developing the language skills of spelling, writing and decoding; despite having high intelligent quotients and higher cognitive abilities, it is very paramount to assist dyslexic children to learn reading skills right from primary school education because if left too late or untreated, the dyslexic child is prone to develop low self-esteem and poor confidence. The major dilemmas faced by the teachers of people with special needs such as dyslexia are the dilemma of identification, curriculum and location. This research seeks to evaluate the impact of teacher training materials used to train teachers at Lagos state Colleges of Education in Nigeria (an institution that mainly trains primary school teachers) on the efficient learning of students with dyslexia based on the UDL principles of providing multiple means of representation, action & expression and engagement. Using the mixed method approach, quantitative data was collected from close-ended questionnaires administered to students and teachers of Colleges of Education in Lagos State, Nigeria, while qualitative data was collected from open-ended questions of the questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. 77 quantitative responses were collected and analyzed using statistical analysis while the qualitative responses were analyzed using content analysis.
Al-Azawei, A., Serenelli, F., & Lundqvist, K. (2016). Universal Design for Learning (UDL): A content analysis of peer reviewed journals from 2012 to 2015. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 16(3), 39-56.
Amesbury, L. (2007). Dyslexia: A Holistic Review of the Strengths and Weaknesses. Student Enabling Centre. University of Wolverhampton. Retrieved from http://wlv.openrepository.com/wlv/bitstream/2436/18072/1/Amesbury%20(2007).
Boets, B., de Beeck, H. P. O., Vandermosten, M., Scott, S. K., Gillebert, C. R., Mantini, D. & Ghesquière, P. (2013). Intact but less accessible phonetic representations in adults with dyslexia. Science, 342(6163), 1251–1254.
Burgstahler, S. (2011). Universal Design: Implications for Computing Education. ACM Transactions on Computing Education, 11(3), 1–17. doi:10.1145/2037276.2037283.
CAST. (n.d.). Universal Design for Learning Guidelines version 2.2.” Retrieved from http://udlguidelines.cast.org, 2018.
CAST. (2019). Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Guidelines version 2.0. Wakefeild, MA: Author.
Catts, H. W., Adlof, S. M., Hogan, T. P., & Weismer, S. E. (2005). Are specific language impairment and dyslexia distinct disorders? J Speech Lang Hear Res, 48, 1378–96.
Catts H. W., & Petscher, Y. (2018). Early Identification of Dyslexia Current Advancements and Future Directions. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 44(3), 33-36.
Catts H. W., Fey, M.E., Tomblin, J. B., & Zhang, X. (2012). A longitudinal investigation of reading outcomes in children with learning impairments. Journal of Speech, Language, and hearing Research, 45(6), 1142-1157.
Center for Universal Design (2015). Retrieved from http://www.ncsu.edu/ncsu/design/cud/about_ud/about_ud.htm.
Colenbrander D., Ricketts J., & Breadmore H. L. (2018). Early identification of dyslexia: Understanding the issues. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 49(4), 817-828.
Courey, S. J., Tappe, P., Siker, J., & LePage, P. (2013). Improved lesson planning with universal design for learning (UDL). Teacher Education and Special Education, 36(1), 7-27. doi:10.1177/0888406412446178.
Creswell, J.W., & Plano Clark, V.L. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Denscombe, M. (2014). The good research guide for small scale research projects (5th ed.). Open University Press.
Epigeum Ltd. (2009). Research Methods in the Social Sciences. Retrieved from http://elearning.net.marjon.ac.uk/research-skills/researchmethods/researchsocsci_mo_251110/html/course_files/deductive, 2009.
Hartmann, E. (2015). Universal design for learning (UDL) and learners with severe support needs. International Journal of Whole Schooling, 11(1), 54-67.
Hedenius M., Persson, J., Alm, P. A., Ullman, M. T., Howard, J. H., Howard, D. V., & Jennische, M. (2015). Impaired implicit sequence learning in children with developmental dyslexia? Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(11), 3924–3935.
Henderson, L. M., & Warmington, M. (2017). A sequence learning impairment in dyslexia? It depends on the task. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 60, 198-210.
Howard, J. H., Howard D. V., Japikse, K. C., & Eden, G. F. (2006). Dyslexics are impaired on implicit higher-order sequence learning: But not on implicit spatial context learning. Neuropsychologia, 44, 1131–1144.
Hulme, C., Nash, H. M., Gooch, D., Lervåg, A., & Snowling, M. J. (2015). The foundations of literacy development in children at familial risk of dyslexia. Psychological Science, 26(12), 1877-1886.
International Dyslexia Association. (2017). Dyslexia in the classroom: what every teacher needs to know. Retrieved from http://www.interdys.org/UnlockingDyslexiaPressRelease.htm.
Jimenez-Fernandez, G., Vaquero, J. M. M., Jimenez, L., & Defior, S. (2011). Dyslexic children show deficits in implicit sequence learning: But not in explicit sequence learning or contextual cueing. Annual of Dyslexia, 61, 85–110.
King-Sears, M. E., Johnson, T. M., Berkeley, S., Weiss, M. P., Peters-Burton, E. E., Evmenova, A. S., ... & Hursh, J. C. (2015). An exploratory study of universal design for teaching chemistry to students with and without disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 38(2), 84-96.
Lagos State, News. (2019). Retrieved from: https://lagosstate.gov.ng/blog/category/all-news/, 2019.
Leonard, L. (1998). Children with specific language impairment. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Leung, L. (2015). Validity, reliability, and generalizability in qualitative research. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 4(3), 324-327.
Lum, J. A., Ullman, M. T., & Conti-Ramsden, G. (2013). Procedural learning is impaired in dyslexia: Evidence from a meta-analysis of serial reaction time studies. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(10), 3460–3476.
Lund Research. (2012). Sampling: The Basic. Retrieved from: http://dissertation.laerd.com/sampling-the-basics.php, 2012.
Magnan, A., Ecalle, J., Veuillet, E., & Collet, L. (2004). The effects of an audio‐visual training program in dyslexic children. Dyslexia, 10(2), 131-140.
Mangiatordi, A., & Serenelli, F. (2013). Universal design for learning: A meta-analytic review of 80 abstracts from peer reviewed journals. Research on Education and Media, 5(1), 109–118.
Marino M. T. (2009). Understanding how adolescents with reading difficulties utilize technology-based tools. Exceptionality, 17, 88–102. doi:10.1080/09362830902805848.
Mefor, C. (2018). Nigeria: 20% of Nigerians Have Dyslexia – Tikolo. Retrieved from https://allafrica.com/stories/201809010016.html.
Menghini, D., Hagberg, G. E., Caltagirone, C., Petrosini, L., & Vicari, S. (2006). Implicit learning deficits in dyslexic adults: An fMRI study. Neuroimage, 33, 1218–1226.
Oliver, M. (1992). Changing the Social Relations of Research Production. Disability, Handicap and Society, 7(2), 101-114.
Osman, A., Yahaya, W. A. J. W., & Ahmad, A. C. (2015). Educational multimedia app for dyslexia literacy intervention: a preliminary evaluation. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 176, 405-411.
Ramus, F., & Szenkovits, G. (2008). What phonological deficit? The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61(1), 129–141.
Rao, K., & Meo, G. (2016). Using universal design for learning to design standards-based lessons. SAGE Open, 6(4), 2158244016680688.
Rao, K., Ok, M., & Bryant, B. R. (2014). A review of research on universal design educational models. Remedial and Special Education, 35, 153–166. doi:10.1177/0741932513518980.
Rappolt-Schlichtmann, G., Daley, S. G., Lim, S., Lapinski, S., Robinson, K. H., & Johnson, M. (2013). Universal design for learning and elementary school science: Exploring the efficacy, use, and perceptions of a web-based science notebook. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 1210–1225.
Rose, D. H., & Meyer, A. (2002). Teaching every student in the digital age: Universal design for learning. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA.
Rose, D. H., Harbour, W. S., Johnston, C. S., Daley, S. G., & Abarbanell, L. (2006). Universal design for learning in postsecondary education: Reflections on principles and their application. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 19(2), 135-151.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. (2012). Research Methods for Business Students (6th ed.). Pearson Education Limited.
Snowling, M.J. (2015). Developmental dyslexia: predicting individual risk. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(9), 976-987.
Snowling, M.J., Duff, F. J., Nash, H. M., & Hulme, C. (2016). Language profiles and literacy outcomes of children with resolving, emerging, or persisting language impairments. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57(12), 1360-1369.
Stein, J. F. (2001). The magnocellular theory of developmental dyslexia. Dyslexia, 7, 12–36.
Stoodley, C. J., Harrison, E. P., & Stein, J. F. (2006). Implicit motor learning deficits in dyslexic adults. Neuropsychologia, 44(5), 795–798.
Tallal, P. (2003). Language learning disabilities: integrating research approaches. Curr Dir Psychol Sci, 12, 206–11.
Thompson, P. A., Hulme, C., Nash, H. M., Gooch, D., Hayiou-Thomas, E., & Snowling, M.J. (2015). Developmental dyslexia: predicting individual risk. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(9), 976-987.
Thompson, J. (2010). Good Practice in interventions for teaching dyslexic learners and in teacher training in English speaking countries. Harvard Graduate School of Education.
Vellutino, F. R., Fletcher, J. M., Snowling, M. J., & Scanlon, D. M. (2004). Specific reading disability (dyslexia): What have we learned in the past four decades?. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(1), 2-40.
Vicari, S., Marotta, L., Menghini, D., Molinari, M., & Petrosini, L. (2003). Implicit learning deficit in children with developmental dyslexia. Neuropsychologia, 41, 108–114.
Wolf, M. & Bowers, P. (1999). The ’double deficit hypothesis’ for developmental dyslexia. J Educ Psychol, 91, 1–24.
Copyright (c) 2023 Ovie O. Akise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.