Fiber, Phytic Acid and Enzymology in Non-Ruminants’ Productivity with Conventional Feedstuffs
The global population is still growing and as such would soon increase above the current levels. This is an indication that the demand for food, including animal proteins from the swine and poultry industries would also increase accordingly. This is also a clear indication that the feed industry, particularly for swine and poultry, is expected to also grow. This therefore requires that means of meeting this need be strategized for, such as improving digestive processes for better nutrients’ utilizations and retentions by swine and poultry, since their abilities to digest their diets are not 100% efficient. The major problems relate to the presence of anti-nutritional factors impeding nutrient digestibility. The major concerns are fibers and phytic acids. Fiber acts as a diluent of available nutrients and may also contain factors which can physically and chemically inhibit nutrient digestion, absorption and utilization resulting in high amounts of dietary nutrients in the excreted manure in addition to poor performance. Fibers also cause mineral adsorption thereby exacerbating poor nutrient retention. Pigs and poultry are deficient in cellulases and phytases (enzymes involved in the digestion of fiber and phytic acid) respectively. Overall, therefore, fiber and phytic acid not digested prevent the digestibility of nutrients thereby significantly reducing net energy intake. The inclusions of exogenous cellulases and phytases in diets of non-ruminants therefore greatly influence their productivity positively with improved performance leading to minimal nutrients’ excretions in animal manure. Swine and poultry feeds are to date still are the largest proportion of feed compounded globally primarily due to increased consumer demand for cheap, safe and healthy meat and meat products from swine and poultry. These drawbacks can be overcome via the use of enzyme technology involving the use of exogenous enzymes.
Copyright (c) 2022 Ntinya C. Johnson, Victor M. Ogbamgba, James T. Mbachiantim
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