European Journal of Science, Innovation and Technology <p>The <em>European Journal of Science, Innovation and Technology</em> (ISSN 2786-4936) is an international open access and peer-reviewed journal that provides a platform for high-quality original research contributions across the entire range of natural, social, formal, and applied sciences. The journal aims to advance and rapidly disseminate new research results and ideas to a wide audience to provide greatest benefit to society.</p> <div>&nbsp;</div> en-US (Anna Shevchenko) (V. V. Rudenko) Tue, 07 May 2024 19:30:42 +0300 OJS 60 Performance Based Bitumen Testing Methods in Austria <p>In the conventional bitumen testing scheme, the bitumen samples are examined by means of various tests (e.g. penetration, softening point with ring and ball, breaking point according to Fraass), which do not give any direct physical parameters of the bitumen or the asphalt produced with it for certain damage cases (e.g. cracks, rutting). A conclusion from these test values to the actual behaviour of the bitumen in the asphalt road is only possible through practical experience and estimation. Basically, three groups of properties have been defined for bitumen, which summarise the most important application-oriented properties: high-temperature properties (deformation behaviour), cold properties and ageing (short and long term ageing). In addition to the classical (empirical) methods, the following methods, so-called performance based requirements (germ. <strong>GVO</strong> = <strong>G</strong>ebrauchs<strong>v</strong>erhaltens<strong>o</strong>rientiert) methods, are used in Austria for testing bitumen in accordance with EU standards.</p> Kerim Hrapović Copyright (c) 2024 Kerim Hrapović Tue, 07 May 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Toward Text-To-Speech in Low-Resource and Unwritten Languages by Leveraging Transfer Learning: Application in Viet Muong Closed Language Pair <p class="Abstract" style="margin-top: 0cm; text-indent: 0cm;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-weight: normal;">Text-to-speech systems require a lot of text and speech data to train models on. But with over 6,000 languages in the world, making text-to-speech systems for minority and low-resource languages is very difficult. Traditional text-to-speech has two parts: an acoustic model that predicts sounds from text and a vocoder that turns the sounds into waveforms. This paper proposes a text-to-speech system for languages with very little data to support minority languages. It uses three techniques: 1. Pre-training the acoustic model on languages with a lot of data, then fine-tuning on the low-resource language; 2. Using "knowledge distillation" to adapt the model to match a high-quality example voice; 3. Treating input text data for a minority language like Muong the same way as Vietnamese text data. We first learn linguistic features from Vietnamese speech data using a standard Tacotron 2 acoustic model. Then, we train the acoustic model on Muong speech data, starting from the weights of the Vietnamese model. The synthesized Muong speech has a naturalness score of 3.63 out of 5.0 and a Mel Cepstral Distortion of 5.133, based on 60 minutes of Muong data. These results show the effectiveness and quality of the Muong text-to-speech system, built with very little Muong language data. </span></p> Pham Van-Dong Copyright (c) 2024 Van-Dong Pham Tue, 21 May 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Analysis of α Parameters: Nakayasu Synthetic Hydrograf and Collins Method in Optimizing the Dimensional Planning of Water Buildings <p>The limited availability of hydrograph data is an obstacle to waterworks planning. This obstacle makes synthetic unit hydrograph (HSS) models provide considerable benefits for waterworks planning. Ideally, each watershed has a unit hydrograph with its own unique characteristics.</p> <p>Observations of hydrograph characteristics in each watershed and all watersheds in South Sulawesi Province have many differences. Modeling is carried out based on the Alpha equation with the influence parameters of the watershed area (A), river length (L), slope of the riverbed (S), form factor (FD), and concentration time (tg).</p> <p>The data used is the data of the hydrograph observation unit in 2011–2017, which is then calculated with the HSS Nakayasu Method and Collins Method. From the calculation of the HSS Nakayasu and Collins Methods, each peak discharge (QP) is obtained, which has the smallest difference between the two of them. With these results, the α parameter value of 0.60 is obtained. The value of the α parameter obtained is in accordance with the actual river characteristics of the Janeberang watershed, so it can optimize the planning of water building dimensions.</p> Acep Hidayat Copyright (c) 2024 Acep Hidayat Wed, 29 May 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Assessing Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers’ Understanding in Inductive and Deductive Reasoning in Mathematics Application <p>Inductive reasoning is a key strategy for knowledge creation, problem solving, and generalization in mathematics education. Deductive reasoning, on the other hand, is the process of using logically sound methods to derive a true conclusion from a given set of premises. If the conclusion and the premises are both true, deductive validity of the conclusion is established. However, the application of inductive and deductive reasoning in teaching mathematical research at colleges of education in Ghana has not received much academic attention. Therefore, the study sort to explore pre-service teachers’ understanding of inductive and deductive reasoning in teaching the mathematics (series and sequence). The research approach was mixed methods with sequential explanatory as its design. The study employed stratified and simple random sampling techniques to select a sample size of 237. The data were collected from a questionnaire administered to 237 pre-service mathematics teachers. Again, 6 pre-service mathematics teachers were selected for an interview to expand their views on inductive and deductive application of mathematics. Through the thematic analysis method, it was found that pre-service mathematics teachers perceived inductive reasoning as a process for moving from the particular to the general and deductive reasoning as general to particular and as a way to acquire mathematical knowledge through questioning. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation) were used to analyze the survey data, and the qualitative data from the respondents underwent thematic data analysis. Results indicated that, although incorporating both inductive and deductive reasoning improved mathematics teaching and learning that pre-service teachers need professional learning experiences geared towards using both inductive reasoning and deductive processes and tasks to form concepts and generalizations in mathematics. It is recommended that, policy makers provide varieties of instructional resources, including textbooks, online tools, and manipulatives, that can support pre-service teachers in implementing effective inductive and deductive reasoning activities in their teachings.</p> Prince Kusi, Ebenezer Bonyah, Emmanuel Teku, Sampson Kwame Effah Copyright (c) 2024 Prince Kusi, Ebenezer Bonyah, Emmanuel Teku, Sampson Kwame Effah Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0300 A Systematic Review on the Impact of Gender Equity on Educational Leadership <p>People have often discussed about whether men or women are better leaders. This ongoing discussion has led to debates and theories about male and female leadership. It shows that many are still curious about how being male or female might affect someone’s leadership style. In educational institution, leaders deal with a lot of changes in a constantly changing and competitive environment. This study reviews the effects of gender equity on educational leadership, which focuses specifically on how it influences leaders regardless of gender. After conscientious evaluation guided by the review protocols, 12 were finally selected from the initial 436 articles. The findings indicate that gender equity fosters a variety of perspectives and strengths in both male and female leaders, enriching decision-making processes and promoting innovation. Moreover, it helps in reducing biases and creating a more inclusive environment, benefiting individuals of all genders. The review emphasizes the significance of promoting gender diversity in leadership positions for the overall improvement of educational management. Further, it is recommended for extensive research not limited to identifying the common challenges and experiences faced by leaders in both genders. Hence, this review puts emphasize on the essence and significance of gender equity to the leaders in every educational institution that will result for a more creative and inclusive learning environment to achieve its common organization objective.</p> Reniel C. Laki, Benjie O. Badon Copyright (c) 2024 Reniel C. Laki, Benjie O. Badon Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Impact of Internationalized Digital Marketing Strategy on Organizational Performance of Air Peace Nigeria Limited <p>Internationalized digital marketing strategies are becoming increasingly important in today's globalized business landscape for organizations looking to expand their reach and improve their performance. This study aims to examine the impact of implementing an internationalized digital marketing strategy on the organizational performance of Air Peace Nigeria Limited. In addition, the study centers its attention on three primary independent variables, namely: Social Media Presence and Engagement, Cross-cultural Communication and Messaging, and Influencer and Affiliation Marketing Campaigns. Customer engagement and loyalty are recognized as mediating variables, whereas organizational performance is regarded as the dependent variable. The formulated hypotheses have the objective of investigating and confirming the relationships among the variables. Quantitative method has been implemented, where a questionnaire has been used for the data collection method. The population number of respondents is N = 150 while the sample is S = 108 based on Krejcie and Morgan's table. The study findings indicate that Air Peace Airlines innovative digital marketing strategies have a favorable influence on the overall performance of its organizational performance by enhancing and expanding its marketing capabilities. However, the degree of contentment regarding Air Peace's cross-cultural communication and messaging is moderate based on the respondents. Finally, recommendations have been provided.</p> Tobi Adeyemo, Adejare Yusuff Aremu Copyright (c) 2024 Tobi Adeyemo, Adejare Yusuff Aremu Mon, 03 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Factors Associated with Urinary Tract Infections among Women Aged 18 – 59 Years in Consolata Mission Hospital, Nyeri County, Kenya <p>Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a condition in which bacteria invade and grow in the human urinary tract. UTIs generally happen when microscopic organisms enter the urinary lot through the urethra and start to spread in the bladder. The microbes may then grab hold and develop into an all-out contamination in the urinary tract. Because their urethra is closer to the anus and their urethral opening is closer to the bladder, women typically have a more at risk of acquiring a urinary tract infection (UTI) than males. The aim of the study was to assess factors contributing to urinary tract infections among women between 18 to 59 years at Consolata Mission hospital, Nyeri County, Kenya. A cross-sectional study was used. The target population was 171 women attending Consolata Mission hospital where systematic sampling was used. Data was collected using questionnaires. Chi-square test statistics was used to determine associations. The study revealed majority of the respondents were married (51.8%) and 85.6% of the respondents were Christians. Vast majority of the respondents had adequate education and also 70.7% had some form of employment. 83.8% of the women were knowledgeable on what UTIs are according to the study. The bulk of the women (75.6%) were familiar with how UTIs are treated, 84.4% knew the signs and symptoms and an additional 76.9% are conversant with how they are prevented. Cross-tabulation of the data using Chi-square statistics revealed there was no association between the independent and dependent variables. In conclusion, though socio-demographic factors such as age, marital status, religion, occupation, level of education and residence did not show any association with urinary tract infection, nonetheless these factors play a crucial role in a person’s health status.</p> Humphrey Kihoro Maina, James Malusha Copyright (c) 2024 Humphrey Kihoro Maina, James Malusha Wed, 29 May 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Improving Bread Quality and Production Process Using Taguchi’s Loss Function, Sigma Level: Vulgarization of Composite Breads <p>Over the years, bread has become a staple food for millions of Cameroonians, with each Cameroonian consuming 33 kilograms of wheat each year. This has made bread production a highly lucrative business for manufacturers.&nbsp;According to Taguchi, a product does not cause a&nbsp;<em>loss</em>&nbsp;only when it is outside specification limit but whenever it deviates from its target value.&nbsp;This study measured the quality of bread already on the market with the objective of quantifying the financial losses to society and evaluated the process sigma quality level to guide efforts to improve the process. The study population consisted of 400 bread samples of two most consumed types of bread, selected using a systematic random sampling method from a total of four bakeries and five sale points in Bamenda and Bafoussam Cities of Cameroon. The results indicated that 15% of the breads from Bakery D did not meet the weight specifications, while 42% of the 600g bread presentation did not meet the specifications. The remaining bakeries had a weight deviation of between 95% and 98%. The losses for the products with presentations of 600g, 200g (Bakery A), 200g (Bakery B), 200g (Bakery C), and 200g (Bakery D) are 59.81 xaf, 44.22 xaf, 23.03xaf, 26.91xaf, and 35.14 xaf, respectively. The 600g bread presentation incurred the greatest economic loss when it deviated from the nominal value, while bakery A exhibited the best sigma quality level of the process, 5.61 sigma. It was recommended that various stakeholders throughout the country consider substituting portions of wheat flour with cassava flour in the manufacturing of composite bread. Additionally, it was suggested that the weight and quality of bread available on the market be monitored and controlled in order to minimize losses to society.</p> Tsapi T. Kevin, Tchasso T. Serge, Mbelle B. Samuel, Soh F. Bertin, A. Kuitche Copyright (c) 2024 Tsapi T. Kevin, Tchasso T. Serge, Mbelle B. Samuel, Soh F. Bertin, A. Kuitche Thu, 30 May 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Effect of Cybergogy on Students' Learning Motivation and Learning Outcomes <p>Higher education is an integral part in developing students' intellectual abilities and skills to prepare them for a better future. As information and communication technology develops, higher education faces increasing demands to integrate this technology into the learning process. One approach that is emerging and developing rapidly in higher education is cybergogy, which combines pedagogical principles with information and communication technology to create a more interactive and technology-oriented learning experience. One of the important aspects of the learning process in higher education is student learning motivation. Learning motivation plays a key role in student academic success, because motivated students tend to participate more actively in learning, develop deeper understanding, and achieve better learning outcomes. Applying cybergogy, it is important to understand that the use of technology in learning can influence student learning motivation. Apart from learning motivation, student learning outcomes are also an important benchmark in assessing the effectiveness of learning approaches. In the digital era, learning outcomes are no longer only measured through traditional exams, but also through critical thinking skills, the ability to collaborate, and the ability to adapt to technology. Therefore, research on the influence of cybergogy on student learning outcomes is becoming increasingly important. Understanding the relationship between cybergogy, learning motivation, and student learning outcomes, we can develop more effective and relevant learning strategies to meet future demands in the digital world. This research was conducted at ITB STIKOM Bali using a population of students majoring in Information Systems class of 2023 as generation C whose activities cannot be separated from utilizing information technology. Sampling was taken using the Slovin method. The research instrument used a Likert scale questionnaire. The research method uses survey research methods with a quantitative approach. Data analysis techniques use simple linear regression and MANOVA. The results of the research are the results of quantitative statistical calculation analysis to answer the hypothesis of whether or not there is an influence between cybergogy on learning motivation and learning outcomes.</p> I Wayan Kayun Suwastika, I Komang Adisaputra Gita, Nurul Armadari Copyright (c) 2024 I Wayan Kayun Suwastika, I Komang Adisaputra Gita, Nurul Armadari Wed, 05 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Influence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Applications on Students' Learning Motivation <p>In this digital era, technological developments are increasingly rapid, always changing according to human needs. Humans are always looking for ways to make life easier in the field of information technology. Information technology has influenced all fields without exception in the field of education. Currently, what is trending in the world of education is the use of artificial intelligence to help make learning easier. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a term from Industrial Society 4.0 and Society 5.0, which is a "computer program, machine learning, hardware and software". In this modern era of globalization, every technology is always present in everyday life, making it easy for us to do things, in this case the learning process to be able to improve student learning motivation. The learning motivation in this research is the ARCS motivation model. The ARCS motivation model consists of four components: attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction. So far, student learning motivation has been low due to students' boredom with static learning resources. Students need refreshing learning resources that are intelligent and dynamic. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on the influence of the existence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications on increasing student learning motivation so that there can be created an active, creative and innovative learning atmosphere. This research uses an experimental method with a quantitative approach. The sample consists of 2 classes, namely the control class and the experimental class of ITB STIKOM Bali odd semester 2023-2024 students who take information systems concepts and applications courses. The analysis technique used is simple linear regression to determine the relationship between the two variables, namely 1 independent variable and 1 dependent variable. The urgency of this research is to prove that there is a significant influence between applications used by Artificial Intelligence (AI) which are more focused on using the AI ​​chatGPT application in the current digital era on student learning motivation.</p> Joko Santoso, Ni Kadek Diah Novia Dewi, Delia Ritu Lende Copyright (c) 2024 Joko Santoso, Ni Kadek Diah Novia Dewi, Delia Ritu Lende Wed, 05 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Asphalt for Use in Liquid Manure, Slurry and Silage Leachate Plants (JGS Plants) and Biogas Plants <p>When constructing biogas plants and JGS plants, a wide range of legal regulations must be complied with from the point of view of environmental, health and consumer protection. The purpose of this article is to define a technical standard for planning, tendering and production specifically for both types of plants (both areas are summarised below under the term <em>drive-in silo</em>).</p> Kerim Hrapović Copyright (c) 2024 Kerim Hrapović Wed, 05 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in Quezon, Nueva Vizcaya Using GIS: An Enhancement <p>Creating a landslide susceptibility map is imperative for effectively managing the landslide hazard, reducing property damage and loss of life. Like many other mountainous places, the municipality of Quezon has also experienced landslides, resulting in fatalities, injuries, and property destruction. Hence, this study was conducted to generate an enhanced landslide susceptibility map using a GIS-based spatial multicriteria approach. Seven causative factors, including slope, rainfall, soil type, land cover, elevation, distance from the road, and distance from the river, were selected for the present assessment. An enhanced landslide susceptibility map was generated by integrating AHP and GIS techniques and was categorized into four susceptibility classes: very low, low, moderate, and high. The result presented in the study illustrates that there was a disparity between the two maps. The enhanced map shows a more detailed representation of truly vulnerable areas. Specifically, 3589.64 hectares are identified as very low susceptible, 5690.36 hectares are low susceptible, while 5993.09 hectares and 5792.80 hectares are categorized as moderately and highly susceptible to landslides. The results presented in the study indicate that Barangay Maasin, Runruno, and Calaocan, and some parts of Maddiangat, Baresbes, Buliwao, and Darubba, are identified as at high-risk areas. On the other hand, Barangay Dagupan and Bonifacio are at moderate risk, while Barangay Nalubbunan, Caliat, and Aurora are at low risk. Furthermore, the validation conducted by geotagging and field survey yields positive results, indicating that the validated points aligned on the enhanced LSM. The enhanced LSM serves as a valuable tool for disaster preparedness and enables local agencies to implement targeted measures to mitigate landslide risks, especially in high-risk places.</p> Sarilyn R. Lopez, Raziel A. Lawayan, Lanie Lyn T. Padi Copyright (c) 2024 Lopez, Sarilyn R. ; Lawayan, Raziel A.; Padi, Lanie Lyn T. Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Family and Individual Determinants of Work-Family Conciliation among Working Women in Goma City/DRC <p><em>Objective:</em> In developing countries (DCs), women have invested the labor market in both the formal and informal sectors in order to contribute to efforts fighting against poverty in their households. This article attempts to analyze and test the determinants of work-family conciliation (WFC) to these working women in Goma, a city located in the Democratic Republic of Congo.</p> <p><em>Methodology:</em> After a qualitative approach based on semi-structured interviews and whose objective was to generate new items for the measurement of WFC, factor analysis made it possible to refine these dimensions before testing the reconciliation score by a variance analysis.</p> <p><em>Result:</em> It appeared that the WFC is a multidimensional concept. This is made up of eight dimensions: Family support and external services to help working women with their family commitments; Reconciling a wife’s working hours with those of her husband; Working hours and household chores; Managing the constraints associated with transporting women and their children; WFC perceived by working women and their colleagues; Ability to face the unexpected wit for their children; Spouse and colleagues support when needed; Estimated financial losses resulting from the satisfaction of household expenses. The analyses indicate an average WFC score of 59.3%. The analysis of variance shows a significant link between the age of the working woman, her level of education, her marital status, the size of the household, the household income, motherhood (the number of children) and WFC.</p> <p><em>Originality:</em> Studies on work-family conciliation are rare in the DRC, despite significant investment by working women for several years now. This study is the first in this field. It also has the advantage of testing both organizational and non-organizational determinants of WFC.</p> <p><em>Limits</em> <em>and perspectives of new research:</em> Having adopted an exploratory approach, a theoretical deepening could make it possible to adopt, later, a confirmatory approach to be more sure of having correctly grasped the quintessence of this construct.</p> Faustin CHIZA KAJIBWAMI, Georges KAYEYE MAGALA, Aimé BUTOTIMA SAFARI, Pax MURHULA BUSHENYI, Lucien MPONYO MUSAMBA Copyright (c) 2024 CHIZA KAJIBWAMI Faustin, KAYEYE MAGALA Georges, BUTOTIMA SAFARI Aimé, MURHULA BUSHENYI Pax, MPONYO MUSAMBA Lucien Wed, 12 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0300