European Journal of Science, Innovation and Technology 2023-09-22T18:47:42+03:00 Anna Shevchenko Open Journal Systems <p>The <em>European Journal of Science, Innovation and Technology</em> (ISSN 2786-4936) is an international open access and peer-reviewed journal that provides a platform for high-quality original research contributions across the entire range of natural, social, formal, and applied sciences. The journal aims to advance and rapidly disseminate new research results and ideas to a wide audience to provide greatest benefit to society.</p> <div>&nbsp;</div> Atmospheric Cyclone Driven Off Shelf and Off Continental Margin Oceanic Mass Flux Events in the Mid-Atlantic Bight U.S.A. 2023-07-28T16:23:16+03:00 L. J. Pietrafesa P. T. Gayes S. Bao T. Karl L. Arencibia-Perez <p>The movement of sediment across the continental margins of the United States (U.S.) has been studied by numerous investigators over the past four decades. The classic, comprehensive review of the state of understanding was first provided by Smith (1977). Over that period, there have been several mid-latitude field programs studying the flux of momentum and materials across continental margins staged on both the east and west coasts of the United States. We will consider a data set that has been sitting idle for several decades but is intriguing as it couples atmospheric cyclone passages in the U.S. Eastern Atlantic Continental Margin, Middle-Atlantic Bight, to continental margin offshore fluxes of sediments; an overlooked and difficult to measure phenomena. Along the mid-latitude eastern seaboard of the U.S., there have been three large scale efforts to observe processes related to the flux of momentum and mass across the continental margin covering the region from Cape Cod, Massachusetts to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The first two studies were called the Shelf Edge Exchange Program, aka, SEEP I &amp; II. SEEP I was staged between the New York Bight and southern Connecticut and is described by Walsh <em>et al.</em> (1988). SEEP II occurred offshore of the Delmarva Peninsula and is described by Biscaye <em>et al.</em> (1994). The Ocean Margins Program, aka the OMP, the third such effort, was staged between Chesapeake Bay, Virginia and Cape Hatteras, North Carolina and is described by Verity <em>et al.</em> (2002). All three field programs were sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. Traditionally there have been two schools of thought regarding the flux of materials on continental margins. One is the hypothesis that there is continual mass transport driven by costal oceanic currents and waves. The second purports that highly energetic events dominate the mass transport time series but offers scant observations to support that hypothesis. We investigate oceanic current and wave data, and cleverly designed sediment trap data, collected on the continental margin of the Middle Atlantic Bight and determine that the mechanisms associated with large accumulations of Lead 210 or 210<sub>Pb</sub>, which is derived from the atmosphere, were delivered via an offshore directed flux of sediments. We show that lateral fluxes of sediments which occurred during the passages of high energy atmospheric cyclones were responsible for mechanically driving the across-continental fluxes of sediments.</p> 2023-07-28T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 L. J. Pietrafesa, P. T. Gayes, S. Bao, T. Karl, L. Arencibia-Perez Design, Fabrication, and Optimization Studies of a Groundnut Kneader 2023-07-31T12:15:12+03:00 Moshood Enewo Sulaiman Dauda Dangora Nalado Sharaffadeen Kolawole Shittu Kamil Kayode Katibi <p>Nigeria's small-scale oil extraction remains a significant bottleneck. ‎In this study, an improved groundnut kneader was designed, fabricated, and evaluated based on groundnut oil extraction. Also, some pertinent parameters of the developed kneading machine including machine speed, ‎finger numbers, and water temperature were successfully optimized.‎ The result of the study revealed that the highest number of fingers (F<sub>3</sub>) produced the highest machine efficiency of 78.39% and maximum output capacity of 17.97 kg/h while the lowest efficiency of 69.74% and the lowest output capacity of 10.79 kg/h were recorded at the lowest number of fingers (F<sub>1</sub>). The highest oil yield of 38.84% was obtained at the water temperature of 60°С, while the lowest groundnut oil yield of 33.7% was recorded at 40°С. The optimum machine efficiency, output capacity, and yield of 80.9%, 19.98 kg/h, and 19.73% were obtained when the machine speed, water temperature, and the number of fingers were 400 rpm, 60°С, F<sub>3</sub> for speed, water temperature, and the number of fingers respectively. The results indicated that as the speed (rpm), water temperature (°С) and fingers were ‎increased the responses such as efficiency (%), oil yield (%), and output capacity (kg/h) ‎were increased. From the performance evaluation of the kneader, it was observed that all the evaluated ‎factors are significant at p ≤ 0.05. Finger number, water temperature, and speed significantly impact kneader oil yield, efficiency, and output capacity; modelling equations were valid and show no significant difference between the statistical and experimental values.</p> 2023-07-31T12:15:12+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Moshood Enewo Sulaiman, Dauda Dangora Nalado, Sharaffadeen Kolawole Shittu, Kamil Kayode Katibi Effects of Community Led Total Sanitation in Scaling up Sanitation Ladder and Disease Prevention in Developing Countries: A Review Focusing on Kenyan Situation 2023-07-28T17:07:11+03:00 James M. Malusha <p>Many people in many countries, especially in developing ones, face numerous challenges in accessing basic sanitation and hygiene. Reports indicate that around the world significant proportion of population do not have access to basic sanitation and hygiene. Although there have been valiant efforts, methodologies and approaches in scaling up sanitation, in recent years there has been escalation of CLTS implementation presumed to be effective in improving community sanitation. Thus the purpose of this review was to examine the effects of improving sanitation and hygiene through community led total sanitation (CLTS) adopted in many developing countries. Systematic reviews were conducted by searching existing literature resulting in retrieval and review of several published papers and reports. To achieve this, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) method was followed in which 1108 were retrieved through Boolean internet search method. And after four stages of screening, 30 published papers were considered relevant as they met the criteria for reporting effectiveness of community led total sanitation as well as the relationship of sanitation and disease prevention. Most articles reviewed reported sanitation as a major problem in many developing countries and that CLTS is effective in up scaling sanitation and preventing sanitation related diseases. Moreover many people in developing countries who have adopted CLTS stopped open defecation and increased latrine usage. Although Kenya adopted CLTS over 10 years ago, it’s still lagging behind in realizing its goal of achieving ODF status in the entire country. This review has shown that sanitation is a major problem in many developing countries and that community led total sanitation approach (CLTS) is effective compared to other methodologies and models. After CLTS adoption and attainment of ODF status in villages, upgrading unimproved latrines into improved latrines, that’s moving step up in sanitation ladder, is crucial for safe human wastes disposal. However, sustainability is crucial for their continued usage and maintenance. Importantly, use of various conservancy technology options is vital in promoting their adoption in communities. Kenya as well as many countries needs to step up efforts in CLTS implementation so as to achieve goal of ODF status in entire country.</p> 2023-07-28T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 James M. Malusha Installation of Surveillance Cameras in Bouaké: Inventory of Fixtures and Implications 2023-08-02T16:53:25+03:00 Koffi Fiacre KOUAME Alain François LOUKOU <p>The management of urban traffic is experiencing an upheaval with the installation of surveillance cameras. Like other cities in the world, Ivorian cities and mainly the city of Bouaké is part of this dynamic experience. However, drivers are indifferent to surveillance cameras. Thus, the objective of this survey is to show the reasons underlying this attitude. Our reflection will be focused first on an inventory of surveillance cameras and then analyzes will be carried out on the impact of surveillance cameras on road users. The methodological approach is focused on the grey literature, on interviews and on the field survey. The urban landscape reveals a disparate location of the cameras and a limited result in terms of their impact on the population.</p> 2023-08-02T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Koffi Fiacre KOUAME and Alain François LOUKOU Vetting the Makridakis Dataset: Further Indications of the Robustness of the Rule Based Forecasting Model 2023-08-08T21:42:15+03:00 Frank Heilig Edward J. Lusk <p><strong><em>Context:</em></strong> The year 2022 marks the 30<sup>th</sup> anniversary of Collopy and Armstrong’s The Rule Based Forecasting [RBF] Expert Systems Model. Over the last three decades, there has been a plethora of research reports—truly a research Cornucopia—spawned by this very unique, effective, and ground-breaking forecasting system. <strong><em>Focus: </em></strong>The purpose of this research note is to: (i) Briefly, remind the forecasting community of the excellent pre-model-launch vetting used by Collopy and Armstrong [C&amp;A] to form their RBF-model. Important is: their vetting protocols readily generalize to most modeling domains, and (ii) Offer a “re-vetting” analysis of the <em>M-Competition</em> dataset used by C&amp;A that addresses their comment: <em>“This study also used long calibration series - - -; rule-based forecasting benefits from long series because it uses information about patterns in the data. <strong>We do not know how the procedure will perform for short series.</strong></em>” [p. 1403[Bolding Added]]. <strong><em>Results:</em></strong> We trimmed selected series from the M-Competition to arrive at 165-series all of which had 13-time series points for the OLS Regression-fit [OLS-R] &amp; three panel-points as holdbacks. We found that: (i) there is evidence that these trimmed-series likely have inferentially differentiable variance profiles compared to the performance profiles reported by C&amp;A, and (ii) despite this, these trimmed-segments did not seem to compromise the C&amp;A’s parametrization of the RBF Model in comparison to OLS-R forecasts. Finally, we suggest the need for an extension of the RBF Expert System re: (1-FPE) Confidence Intervals that would further enhance RBF-testing with respect to capture-rates and relative precision.&nbsp;</p> 2023-08-08T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Frank Heilig, Edward J. Lusk Growth and Production Study of Six Plantain (Musa spp) Cultivars under the Ecological Conditions of Kindu, Maniema Province, DR Congo 2023-08-11T18:02:53+03:00 K.H Tambwe E.S Solia S.E Basile L.A Okungo <p>To contribute to a better knowledge of six plantain (<em>Musa spp</em>.) cultivars, the most widely grown and collected in five territories of Maniema province, a growth and production study was carried out at the experimental site of Kindu University. Growth and production parameters were evaluated using two well-decomposed organic fertilizers (sawdust and rice husks) compared to the control (no fertilizer). The experiment was conducted in a split plot set up at Lwama 1, in the concession of the University of Kindu. The type of fertiliser was the primary factor with three levels and the cultivar was the secondary factor with six levels, making eighteen treatments each repeated ten times. The observations made during this investigation focused on crown diameter (cm), pseudo-trunk height (m) and leaf area (cm<sup>2</sup>) as growth parameters on the one hand, and on the other hand, finger length, number of hands per diet, number of fingers per hand, finger circumference and diet weight as production parameters. The results obtained showed that the growth parameters varied with fertiliser and cultivar. The set of cultivars ranked in descending order as follows: C<sub>6 </sub>(Otangala); C<sub>1 </sub>(Kyankola); C<sub>5 </sub>(Kambelekete); C<sub>4 </sub>(Mbonjilo); C<sub>2</sub> (Mbudi 1) and C<sub>3 </sub>(Mbudi 2). The analyses of variance carried out on the growth parameters showed that there were very highly significant differences between fertilisers but no significant differences between cultivars. As for the production parameters, they varied between fertilisers and cultivars; sawdust was the best fertiliser for all production parameters studied compared to rice husks and the control. Analyses of variance revealed that there were no significant differences between fertilisers, while there were very highly significant differences between cultivars. Because of their simplicity and low cost, both substrates can be recommended to farmers.</p> 2023-08-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Tambwe K.H, Solia E.S, Basile S.E, Okungo L.A Leaching of Germanium from the Slag of the GECAMINES Factories in Lubumbashi by Oxalic and Sulfuric Acids 2023-08-15T12:29:11+03:00 Kazadi Oscar Kayembe Bolande Chantal Mobangolo Kitambala Marsi Mbayo Kitule Simon Muhune Mutombo Emery Kalonda Kabumana Dieudonné Tshibanda Simbi Jean-Baptiste Lumbu <p>The objective of this study is to contribute to the study of the purification of germanium in the slag of the pyrometallurgy of the GCM factories of Lubumbashi. To do this, a pre-treatment of the slag was done by drying at 105°C for 24 hours and a grindability study using a sieve whose mesh was 75mm maximum for 90 minutes. The moisture content was 0.52%, the grinding time 90 minutes to obtain 89% of passers-by. Initially, the slag assayed 0.02% Ge; 0.008% Ga; 5.4% Cu; 0.21% Co; 10.40% Zn; 10.30% Fe and 10.30% Si.</p> <p>Our concern to recover the germanium from the slag with the other accompanying metals was to carry out the tests for dissolving the slag with oxalic and sulfuric acids after having characterized it. This slag was shown to be acidic and without a defined crystalline structure. The various dissolution tests were carried out by varying the quantity of oxalic acid for the preparation of the oxalic acid solution (100 to 150g/L), the leaching time (1h to 4h). The ratio between the amount of slag and the acid solvent was 1÷10 respectively. At this stage of our study, the optimal conditions for the dissolution of germanium were 4 hours of leaching at 40°C with one liter of acid solution of 125g/L for 100g of slag to obtain a yield of 98% of the Ge and a low yield of 42% Cu, 41% Co and 11% Zn. The low leaching yield observed for the other metals is explained by the high silica content of 10.30%. Indeed, the silica leads to a gel trapping the metals and preventing them from going into solution.</p> <p>This is how we considered the elimination of silica by choosing the procedure using citric acid by varying the concentration in g/L of acid and the leaching time.</p> <p>The optimal conditions were the use of one liter of aqueous citric acid solution consisting of 75g/L for 30 minutes of agitation in contact with 100g of slag to eliminate up to 99% of the silica. This process was followed by sulfuric acid leaching tests. The optimal conditions set was the preparation of one liter of acid solution of 122g of sulfuric acid to leach, in 2 hours, 150g of slag, i.e. a solid-liquid ratio of 15÷100. Leach results were 94% Ge, 91% Cu, 85% Co and 91% Zn.</p> 2023-08-15T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Kayembe Kazadi Oscar, Mobangolo Bolande Chantal, Mbayo Kitambala Marsi, Muhune Kitule Simon, Kalonda Mutombo Emery, Tshibanda Kabumana Dieudonné, Lumbu Simbi Jean-Baptiste A Study on the Job Replacement Impact of ChatGPT and Education Method 2023-08-22T14:23:03+03:00 Dong Hwa Kim <p>This paper deals with the job impact of ChatGPT and education preparation for that, which will give an influence on many areas because it can be implemented with ease as just normal editing works and speak including code development by using huge data. Currently young generations will take a big impact on their job selection because ChatGPT can do well as much as human can do it everywhere. Therefore, education method and system should be rearranged as new curriculums. However, government and officers do not understand well how serious it is in education. This paper provides education method and curriculum for AI education including ChatGPT through analyzing many papers and reports, and experience.</p> 2023-08-22T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Dong Hwa Kim Signal Tracking and Acquisition Model for Handoff Process in 4G Network 2023-08-24T13:37:09+03:00 V. N. Okorogu C. S. Okafor C. O. Ezeagwu <p>Since network providers must adhere to the Quality of Service (QoS) standard when delivering network services to customers, the focus of this paper is on the development of signal tracking and acquisition models in 4G networks. The Nigerian Communication Commission (NCC) being the regulatory body established some key performance indicators (KPIs) that the network providers must follow in order to determine whether the implemented model will increase mobility and handoff management as well as improve QoS delivery. Within the Base Station (BS) footprint for the one week of Drive Tests, where measurements were made at intervals of 600m radii, the Received Signal Strength (RSSI) in the characterized 4G network demonstrated strong signals in the range of -50dBm to -80dBm. Mathematical calculations using the field experimental data collected and MATLAB SIMULINK show full agreement with NCC benchmark. The Call Drop Rate (CDR) is 14% while NCC benchmark is &nbsp;20%. The Grade of Service (GoS) is 1.5%, which is in line with the NCC guideline of 1% to 2%. The proposed model's Handoff Success Rate (HOSR) is 91.2%; the NCC benchmark is 80%.</p> 2023-08-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Okorogu, V. N., Okafor, C. S., Ezeagwu, C. O. The Orange Economy, Nollywood, and Decoloniality: A Critical Appraisal 2023-08-30T13:02:40+03:00 Chantel A. Pemberton <p>Nigeria’s Nollywood has evolved into a significant cultural and economic force in Africa and the world. It is renowned for its abundant production of movies, ranking second in the number of films produced annually, surpassing Hollywood and trailing Bollywood. In terms of revenue, it ranks third globally. Its popularity has gained international recognition. However, Nollywood has not managed to transcend the coloniality of its being and repertoire. Hence, this article adopts a corrective and emancipatory agenda to present a discourse on the coloniality of the application of the Orange Economy concept to Nollywood as well as the imperative of applying a decolonial epistemic regime to the operations of Nollywood. This is aimed at engendering the transformation along more decolonial and equalitarian lines of the growing exploitative stranglehold on Nollywood by non-state financial entities that exploit individuals within the Nollywood industry.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Chantel A. Pemberton The Impact of Metaverse Affecting Factors on Learning Effectiveness: A Case Study 2023-08-30T13:05:45+03:00 Faleh Abdulqader Alhawary <p>The main purpose of this study is to analyse the effect of metaverse certain factors on learning effectiveness via metaverse utilization. The population for this study consists of academic staff at the police college-Abu Dhabi. A simple random sampling technique was used to select the respondents surveyed for this study, a total of 80 questionnaires were administered to respondents; statistical tools were used to test the hypothesis such as: one way ANOVA and simple regression. The findings indicated that there were no significant differences in the perception of respondents toward the utilization of metaverse on student learning effectiveness. The study also showed that the overall of metaverse affecting factors has a significant impact on learning effectiveness, further study results have been revealed and discussed.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Faleh Abdulqader Alhawary Farmers’ Management of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Variety Diversity in Maniema, Democratic Republic of Congo 2023-09-01T17:08:46+03:00 Bopol MOKE S.A SHADARI Dimanche YENGA <p>Farmers on family farms have a considerable number of cassava cultivars unexploited by research. The objective of this study is to assess the level of cassava diversity and to analyze its management. A survey following a participatory approach with questionnaires was conducted among 215 farmers in 43 villages. A significant diversity of cultivars was found by the Shannon index (3.38), 35 vernacular names were inventoried. Highly significant differences were noticed for the number of cultivars which varies from 2 to 12 per village (6 on average). The variation between households is low, 1 to 4 cultivars (2 on average). The number of extinct cultivars varies from 1 to 14 (3.8 on average) per village. The loss of varietal diversity is on average 18.2% and varies between 11% and 50% depending on the villages. Farmers recognize cultivars from leaves and stems. The main criteria for cultivar selection are based on productivity, taste and the size of the tuberous roots. Exchanges of planting materials (cuttings) are made between local farmers (60.84%).</p> 2023-09-01T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Bopol MOKE, SHADARI S.A, Dimanche YENGA Assessment of Cultural Conditions for Banana and Plantains in the Territories of Maniema, D.R.C. 2023-09-01T17:12:16+03:00 Salumu SHADARI Ndolandola MUKANDAMA Lukusa MOKE Djumaa SALUMU <p>The aim of this study was to assess the growing conditions (source of planting materials, age of the banana plantations and the cropping system) of banana and plantain trees in the seven territories of the Province of Maniema in the DRC. We started from a sample of 63 farmers practicing banana cultivation in the study area. A total of 7 territories for the entire Province with 3 villages per territory, 3 fields per village, were involved. The results obtained showed that: the growing conditions vary relatively depending on the territories of this Province where 100% of banana trees are grown in association with rice, cassava, corn or other crops; 95.24% of farmers use shoots from neighboring fields; 90.48% use suckers from plantations located far from their areas and 52.38% of farmers use suckers from the same plantation. On average 42.86% of banana plantations are over 10 years old; 38.10% of banana plantations are 5-7 years old and 14.29% banana plantations are 3-5 years old. We recommend that farmers use suckers from their own fields to avoid disease infections, take good care of the crop for good production, and, the political authorities and their partners in this matter come to the rescue of this culture.</p> 2023-09-01T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Salumu SHADARI, Ndolandola MUKANDAMA, Lukusa MOKE, Djumaa SALUMU Spatial Distribution of Banana Tough Top Disease (BTTD) in Maniema Province, DR Congo 2023-09-01T17:15:47+03:00 Salumu SHADARI Ndolandola MUKANDAMA Boloy NGAMA Djumaa SALUMU <p>A study on the spatial distribution of banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) in the banana production areas of Maniema was conducted with the aim of determining the incidence and severity of BBTD, the presence and the importance of the <em>Pentalonia nigronervosa </em>vector on the different banana and plantain cultivars grown in this study area of ​​the Province of Maniema. 1890 clumps of banana trees were inspected due to 30 clumps of banana trees per field, 3 fields per village and 3 villages per territory, on seven territories of the Province of Maniema. The selected clumps were analyzed based on key indicators such as: disease incidence, disease severity (BBTD), presence and importance of the vector <em>P. nigronervosa</em>, and the state of farmers’ knowledge compared to the management of BBTD. From the analysis of the results, it was found that BBTD is present throughout the study area with an incidence ranging from 78.52 to 88.15% where the high rate is on banana trees in Kibombo territory (88.15%) and in Pangi (87.05%). Discoloration of leaves with normal size is the most common symptom and also high on banana trees with an average of 31.90%. The vector <em>P. nigronervosa </em>is widespread with an average of 94.85% where a strong presence was found on banana trees in Pangi (97.41%). All the colonies of <em>P. nigronervosa </em>are present on the clumps of banana trees. A large colony with winged insects is the most common form with an average of 40.31%. On the other hand, it should be noted that 100% of banana trees are grown in association with rice, cassava, corn or other crops; 95.24% of farmers use shoots from neighboring fields; the age of the banana plantations surveyed varied from less than 3 years to more than 10 years, i.e. 42.86% of the banana plantations are over 10 years old; 38.10% of banana plantations are 5-7 years old and 8.33% of banana plantations are less than 3 years old. From the analysis of different epidemiological parameters, it was found that the growing conditions of banana plants (cropping systems and other practices) favor the incidence and severity of the disease as well as the presence and importance of the vector <em>P. nigronervosa</em>.</p> 2023-09-01T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Salumu SHADARI, Ndolandola MUKANDAMA, Boloy NGAMA, Djumaa SALUMU Curcuma Longa Therapy for the Management and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: Quasi Experimental Pilot Study Design 2023-09-01T17:19:02+03:00 Fouad E El Hachimi Kim Lien Le <p><em>Background:</em> Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic condition defined by consistent hyperglycemia. By 2017, about 462 million individuals worldwide between the ages of 15 and 79 had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). This global public health burden is expected to increase by 200 million by 2040. Curcumin, which is considered the active ingredient in turmeric, has been extensively researched concerning T2D. However, this pilot study will evaluate the efficacy of daily intake of turmeric root powder as a food agent in the management and treatment of T2D.</p> <p><em>Method:</em> This is a quantitative quasi-experimental pilot study design, with the primary objective to answer the following question: Can daily intake of turmeric root powder instead of curcumin effectively control blood glucose in persons with T2D?</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> This study aligns with principles and practices of complementary and integrative health we aim to show the efficacity and effectiveness of whole food agents as a nutritional intervention in the management and treatment of medical conditions such as T2D.</p> 2023-09-01T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Fouad E El Hachimi, Kim Lien Le Perception of Extreme Climatic Events on Bananas around the Petit Balè Dam in the Boromo Commune (Burkina Faso) 2023-09-03T14:14:11+03:00 Joseph YAMÉOGO Songanaba ROUAMBA Korotimi SANOU Richard ZONGO Pawendkisgou Isidore YANOGO <p>The aim of this study is to analyse local extreme weather events and their impact on the banana sector, as perceived by small-scale producers in the village of Lapara, in the municipality of Boromo. To do this, primary data was collected using a survey method. One hundred producers were interviewed in the field using questionnaires. The study showed that small banana growers have a wide range of socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics. They perceive rainfall extremes (R95P, SDII, CWD, R10mm) and temperature extremes (TXx). The study also showed that climate extremes lead to problems such as reduced banana quality, lower producer incomes, loss of banana production and a reduction in the area planted along the main river bed. It is therefore important that local authorities adopt proactive strategies to help growers cope with climatic extremes.</p> 2023-09-03T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Joseph YAMÉOGO, Songanaba ROUAMBA, Korotimi SANOU, Richard ZONGO, Pawendkisgou Isidore YANOGO Marketing Air Cargo and Courier Services in Oman as a Niche Logistics Market Segment and Delving into the Complex Intricacies of this High-Value Industry 2023-09-03T14:20:17+03:00 Faustino Taderera Mahmood Sakhi Al Balushi Reason Masengu <p>This research reflects on marketing air cargo and courier services in Oman as a niche logistics market segment and delves into the complex intricacies of this high-value industry. The study used the conceptual research method, where rich, diverse, and relevant literature reviews were collected and analysed to reach sensible factual conclusions on gaps in knowledge on marketing air cargo operations in Oman. The air cargo function was well-developed and made a huge contribution to the fiscus and the Oman economy. This area of air cargo research was a virgin territory in Oman, and much research is necessary. The findings revealed that further improvements in Oman to march GCC competitors, such as the UAE, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia, in air cargo operations were required. It was also established that it was not easy to attract Omanis to these air cargo marketing and operations jobs, especially female candidates, because of odd working hours as well as the need to travel regularly and be away from home for some periods at times. It was found that critical skills were in short supply, especially local top-grade skills, customs and investment rules and regulations, and infrastructure in Oman needed to be improved, as well as processing and turnaround time, to match best practices in the GCC and globally. Delayed deliveries and incorrect documentation were sometimes experienced due to customs, transport, and loading delays. The Covid 19 pandemic has brought several interesting lessons to the study of cargo movements. The sea freight was hit by a critical shortage of containers, and the sea cargo cost was rocked (Din et al., 2021). Oman has undoubtedly made great strides and is marching on for stardom and big achievements. The findings revealed that air cargo operations and marketing were hands-on and required many years of experience, and one excelled after going through the mill rather than straight from college. Some type of air cargo logistics apprenticeship was necessary for one to establish in the upper and middle echelons of the industry. This study highlights the importance of developing cargo centres with proper handling equipment and staff that can enhance their utilisation. The industry is too delicate and sensitive, and subject to many rules and regulations relating to health and safety, security, environmental protection, and anti-smuggling measures. Other researchers can conduct further research using longitudinal studies and possibly involving every key airport in the country. Two of the researchers are expatriate academics from Zimbabwe and would want their own home country, Zimbabwe, to learn the same lessons that Oman is learning so that Zimbabwe can further develop its own air cargo and courier industry. One researcher was an Oman citizen, an industrialist, and a part-time academic. This team of three researchers worked hard to put up this unique paper in an area that largely remained untouched and unexplored in both Oman and Zimbabwe. The Covid 19 pandemic has brought several interesting lessons to the study of cargo movements. The sea freight was hit by a critical shortage of containers, and the sea cargo cost was rocked (Din et al., 2021).</p> 2023-09-03T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Dr. Faustino Taderera, Mr. Mahmood Sakhi Al Balushi, Dr. Reason Masengu Solid Phase Extraction and Its Possible Application in the Pre-Analysis of Organochlorines (OCs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCBs) Using Different Solvent Variables 2023-09-09T11:13:49+03:00 Edjere Oghenekohwiroro Chukwuka Nwosu Nnamdi Martins Eworitse Toritseju Esther Ahamefula Ozichi Jeffery Isukuru Efe <p>Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) is a widely used sample preparation technique in analytical chemistry. This research aims to evaluate the performance of different solvent variables in SPE for the pre-analysis of Organochlorines (OCs) and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The recovery levels of 26 OCs and 7 PCBs were determined using various solvent mixtures. The study employed the use of simulated samples by using carefully crafted standards for accuracy and reproducibility. The standard used was prepared as follows: to 1ml 1,11-Dibromundekan (Sigma-Aldrich), 200 µl PCB Mix 3 (10 ng/µl) Accu standard and 50µl Pesticide Mix 24 (20ng/µl) LGC standard are added in 20 ml measuring flask and filled to the appropriate mark. This gave a concentration of 100ng/ml dosage on each cartridge. SPE cartridges containing different sorbent materials such as Florisil, glass powder, SAX, SCX, SI, and PE-AX were tested for their efficiency in extracting OCs and PCBs. The eluates from the SPE cartridges were analysed using Gas Chromatography coupled with an Electron Capture Detector (GC/ECD) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) for confirmation. The results showed varying recovery percentages for different OCs and PCBs using different SPE cartridges and solvent variables. Each SPE material exhibited unique extraction capabilities. Florisil cartridges showed promising results in capturing both polar and nonpolar compounds. SAX cartridges were effective in extracting weakly acidic compounds, while SCX cartridges were suitable for basic compounds. This research provides valuable insights into the efficiency of SPE for the pre-analysis of OCs and PCBs. The results highlight the importance of selecting appropriate solvent variables and SPE materials to optimize the recovery of target analytes. These findings can contribute to the development of more accurate and reliable methods for the analysis of OCs and PCBs in various environmental samples.</p> 2023-09-09T11:13:48+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Edjere Oghenekohwiroro, Chukwuka Nwosu Nnamdi, Martins Eworitse Toritseju, Esther Ahamefula Ozichi, Jeffery Isukuru Efe The Influence of Organizational Culture, Situational Leadership Style on Employee Performance with Job Satisfaction as a Mediating Effect at Tax Service Office Jakarta 2023-09-10T19:41:16+03:00 Metta Iswardhana Aripin Sudarmadji <p>The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze the direct influence of organizational culture and situational leadership style on job satisfaction and employee performance as well as to analyze the indirect effect through employee job satisfaction. This research uses a quantitative approach with a survey using a questionnaire or research instrument. Path analysis is used to analyze the data. The population of this study amounted to 95 without involving the leadership. The sampling technique uses saturation or census techniques because the number of respondents is below 100 respondents. The results of the study show that organizational culture is able to increase job satisfaction and employee performance. Likewise, situational leadership style can increase job satisfaction and employee performance. In addition, the research results show that job satisfaction can improve employee performance. In this study job satisfaction is able to mediate the influence of organizational culture and leadership style in improving employee performance. The findings of this study are that job satisfaction becomes an important aspect when organizational culture and situational leadership styles improve employee performance.</p> 2023-09-10T19:41:16+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Metta Iswardhana, Aripin, Sudarmadji Economic Diplomacy and Leadership in Africa: The Impact of Conflict and Conflict Resolution 2023-09-07T22:12:25+03:00 O. O. Akindele R. A. Akinsokeji C. I. Okoli <p>This paper appraised the existence of conflict and the importance of conflict resolution for a sound and healthy economic diplomacy and leadership in the Sahel region of Africa. Recently, this region has been affected by high conflict and poverty.&nbsp;In this region of Africa, many have lived in displacement as a result of a continuous conflict (internal and organizational conflict) that cut across all the countries that make up the Sahel region.&nbsp;The region comprises countries that occupy the areas stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to eastward Senegal all through to Sudan. These countries are Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Chad, and Sudan. From the data available, the level of conflict violence in this region is unprecedented, which has affected the bilateral relations this region has with other nations of the world. The current challenges of the Sahel region require holistic and strategic long-term solutions. Providing protection and humanitarian aid to those affected in the conflict areas of the region must remain a priority but not the ultimate solution; this will save many lives and prevent the vulnerable states from collapsing further. Also, efforts to confront corruption and promote good leadership are an important goal for all, and efforts must be made to address the region's long-term underlying problems, such as climate change, food shortage, and bad leadership. Without that, all effort will be in vain.</p> 2023-09-07T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Akindele, O.O., Akinsokeji, R.A., Okoli, C.I. Integrity and Fidelity in Covenant Relationship: Unraveling the Import of Exodus 6: 7 and its Lessons Today 2023-09-07T16:55:59+03:00 Gerald Emem Umoren Sylvester Udofia <p>Life is lived in different types of covenant relationship that is supposed to be built on trust. However, the common problem is that many either wade into serious covenant relationships without evaluating the credibility of the partner and the sustainability of the partnership; or some who appear credible at the beginning soon turn incredible, resulting in the plethora of broken agreements and covenant relationships that we see today. This paper on integrity and fidelity in covenant relationship is a response, from the point of view of the Bible, to the need for sustained covenant relationships today. Using the exegetical approach to interpret Exodus 6: 7, this paper will identify and highlight the inherent qualities in the Covenant relation between God and His people and, eventually, using the analytical method, examine if and how (far) these perceived values of the Biblical Covenant can be used as a paradigm for today’s covenant relationship. The findings, evaluations, results and conclusions of; together with the recommendations from this research, promise to be insightful and beneficial to covenant relationship within and outside religious circles.</p> 2023-09-07T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Gerald Emem Umoren, Sylvester Udofia Open Social Innovation: A New Paradigm for Thriving Social Organizations (Case of Public Health Organizations) 2023-09-11T12:59:51+03:00 Rachid Oumlil Jamal Laziz Noura Karim Mustapha Bengrich <p>Up today, the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on social organizations are still unexplored. Several innovation efforts were made from both of the academicians and the professionals to understand these impacts and to solve the issues generated by this pandemic. However, these efforts are with no interesting results caused by adoption of the social innovation practices inappropriate to the post pandemic situation.</p> <p>Public health organizations are part of the social organizations impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. They were faced to diverse issues owing in serval times their inability to satisfy all demands. Hence the need for the new innovation practices to beat the potential consequences of this pandemic. Open Social Innovation (OSI) as a new paradigm of innovation turns out to be an alternative mode of innovation to thrive these organization during the post pandemic period.</p> <p>The primary goal of this communication would be identifying opportunities that OSI affords to public healthcare organizations, then categorizing them following many criteria. As the research on OSI devoted to health is still in a primary stage, authors noted the quasi absence of the studies on the impacts of this mode of innovation.</p> <p>To do, authors referred to articles underlining the general benefits of open innovation during the last decade (Oumlil et al., 2020) and used articles displaying the relevant benefits of social innovation for the period ranging from 1980 to April 2023. Afterwards, a meta-analysis of the selected papers was conducted using IRaMuTeQ 0.7 alpha 2 software. Results highlight eleven interrelated categories of OSI opportunities for the public health organizations: hospital performance; hospital innovation process; hospital environment; health products and services; health knowledge and cooperation; patient; health problem alleviation; hospital resilience and sustainability; hospital competitivity and governance; well-being and social responsibility; and hospital risk management.</p> 2023-09-08T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Rachid Oumlil, Jamal Laziz, Noura Karim, Mustapha Bengrich The Socio-Economic Welfare Contribution of Ulugh Khan Jahan to the Islamic Civilization in Bengal during the 15th Century CE 2023-09-11T12:37:53+03:00 Akram Uddin Mst. Rownok Jahan <p>Ulugh Khan Jahan (1369 CE-1459 CE) was a great Sufi, Islamic scholar, and politician in fifteenth century Bengal. He was a committed and sincere Islamic scholar and social activist who appeared as a socio-economic-religious reformist for the welfare of the Bengal people. The aspect of his life and contribution has received less attention from scholars compared to his thought and agenda in the sphere of Sufism. However, he worked hard to promote Muslims to enhance socio-economic aspects and integrate the revealed knowledge with civilizational spheres. He presented his reformative and integrated ideas for the welfare of humanity for all communities. This study used the qualitative method by which data will be collected and analyzed from the primary and secondary texts. The present study aims to investigate Khan Jahan's inclusive socio-economic welfare contribution to Islamic civilization as a means to its realization as reflected in some of his literary works. It seeks to explain comprehensively why he focused on such a bold vision and how he initiated to achieve the goal of socio-economic welfare while acknowledging the religious and cultural differences between Muslims and Hindus. Highlighted in this discussion are the salient features of socio-economic enhancements during his time that influenced others later developments. This study also discusses the significance and relevance of his thoughts and ideas on the issue for contemporary Bangladesh particularly and the society.</p> 2023-09-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Akram Uddin, Mst. Rownok Jahan Marketing Strategy Design for Housing Property Company Using Structural Equation Modeling and Strategic Management Approach 2023-09-11T18:11:08+03:00 Novandra Rhezza Pratama Muhammad Farrel Alonzo Hamid <p>This study aims to analyze the most influential factors in the decision-making process of home purchases by consumers in the Jabodetabek area and formulate marketing strategies for a real estate company in South Jakarta to remain competitive and maintain sales value. The data for this research were collected using questionnaires for the data processed using the partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) method, and in-depth interviews were conducted with company representatives to formulate a marketing strategy. Based on the findings of this study, the factors influencing house purchase decisions were identified as trust, environment, characteristics, attitude, and legality. Additionally, five alternative marketing strategy proposals were suggested, including enhancing brand equity, improving project facilities, introducing new promotional schemes, and collaborating with external parties.</p> 2023-09-11T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Novandra Rhezza Pratama, Muhammad Farrel Alonzo Hamid Exploring the Lived Experience of Pupil’s Success in the Linear Programming with a View to Develop a Framework Dupped HALP 2023-09-14T15:02:45+03:00 Mwambazi Chrispine Mulenga Mubanga Lombe Francis Simui <p>This article explores the lived experience of pupil’s success in the linear programming with a view to develop a framework dupped HALP at Nkeyema Secondary School in Zambia. An inquiry based on interpretive technique was carried out. In total, 15 pupils—eight females and seven males—participated in the study. These were former grade twelve pupils from Nkeyema secondary schools. All the participants were selected using homogenous purposive sampling. The data was generated through semi-structured interviews and group discussion which was thematically analysed. The study revealed that learning linear programming was fraught with difficulties. Some of them were: the distance pupils were covering; lack of appropriate teaching/learning materials such as textbooks and computers; pupils’ poor learning background in linear programming; family support; poor methodology used by some teachers among others. Based on the above highlighted disablers, the study suggests that the Ministry of Education should build schools near to the communities in order to lessen the distance pupils cover and curb absenteeism. It should also allocate adequate funds to schools for the procurement of teaching/learning materials. There should be additional homework assignments for linear programming so that students can do more research. Government should construct more boarding schools, and school administration should create meal arrangements to motivate pupils.</p> 2023-09-14T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Mwambazi Chrispine Mulenga, Mubanga Lombe, Francis Simui Circular Slotted Half Hexagonal Patch Multiband Antenna Design for 5G Applications 2023-09-20T13:51:43+03:00 Mishor Biswas Kaushik Patra Soham Ghosh Bhaskar Gupta <p>In this article, a simple circular slotted half hexagonal patch antenna is designed for multiband applications. This antenna has nine resonant frequencies viz. 1.81GHz, 2.36 GHz, 3.45 GHz, 3.65 GHz, 5.14 GHz, 5.49 GHz, 5.99 GHz, 7.15 GHz and 7.71 GHz with acceptable peak realized gain of 3.42 dBi, 2.69 dBi, 3.51 dBi, 1.15 dBi, 3.05 dBi, 4.66dBi, 6.20 dBi, 5.78 dBi and 7.68 dBi respectively. Less than -10 dB reflection coefficients (S<sub>11</sub>) are achieved in all the frequency bands. Therefore, this antenna can be used for 5G sub-6 GHz (lower band) applications. Along with this, this antenna can also be operated for aviation, satellite communications and wireless communications. It is observed that on introduction of a circular slot on the patch, the resonant frequencies may be controlled by varying the slot radius. A prototype of this antenna is fabricated on FR-4 substrate with good agreement between simulated and measured results.</p> 2023-09-20T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Mishor Biswas, Kaushik Patra, Soham Ghosh, Bhaskar Gupta Architectural Philosophy and Morality of Sacred Spaces in Christian Worship Centre in Akure, Ondo State 2023-09-22T14:14:36+03:00 M. A. Ola E. K. Okafor A. A. Taiwo <p>Architectural philosophy is the moral justification of Western architecture, the foundation of contemporary architecture, and the characteristics of modern architecture, which is concerned with the organization of human functional needs in spaces and the structural need of the work, constituting moral terms. Eventually, the morality of spaces concerning functionality and beauty expresses and communicates to the user, especially in sacred spaces of worship, which, due to the development of theological and liturgical teachings, has altered the anthropometrics of functionality and beauty of sacred spaces. This transition holds from the Traditional Gothic to the Contemporary style, having a lot of dimensional effects on the spiritual meaning, belief, and experience of the worshippers. Therefore, the study focused on investigating the effect of the philosophy and morality of the transition in Gothic and Contemporary styles of sacred spaces in Christian worship centers. The study identified the significance of sacred spaces of worship to the worshippers and further examines the impact of religious buildings and morality of church architecture and interiors in Akure to give directions on the effect of the two styles of sacred spaces in churches. Research methods were in two phases: unstructured interviews and non-participant case studies on five selected churches within the Gothic and Contemporary styles in Akure Ondo state. The close-ended questionnaire gave a constructive perspective of the worshipper's experience of the sacred spaces regarding the study objectives in the case study area. Content analysis and descriptions for the case studies and descriptive statistical tools concerning frequency for the questionnaires were used to arrive at the result, which revealed that dynamic belief, experience, and lifestyle to the ritual and teaching, among other events performed in these sacred spaces of churches being the integral effect of the transition.</p> 2023-09-22T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ola M. A., Okafor E. K., Taiwo A. A. Effects of Perceived Product Quality on Customers’ Preference for Pre-Paid Electricity Metering System in Ekiti State, Nigeria 2023-09-22T18:47:42+03:00 Taiwo Reuben IBIJOJU Israel Olukayode ADEBOWALE <p>This paper analyzed the effects of perceived product quality on customers’ preference for pre-paid electricity metering system in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Primary method of data collection was used. Data were sourced through the use of structured questionnaire administered on carefully selected sample of 381 electricity customers using pre-paid metering system within Ado-Ekiti metropolis in Ekiti State through systematic sampling technique. Multiple regression was adopted to analyze the extent of influence of perceived product quality on customers’ preference. The results revealed that perceived product quality with safety, reliability and performance have positive and significant effect on customers’ preference for pre-paid electricity metering system. The study concluded that electricity customers prefer the pre-paid metering system as a result of perceived product quality.</p> 2023-09-22T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Taiwo Reuben IBIJOJU, Israel Olukayode ADEBOWALE